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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Jason A. Grissom, Susanna Loeb and Hajime Mitani

Time demands faced by school principals make principals’ work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help…

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Abstract

Purpose

Time demands faced by school principals make principals’ work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help principals meet job demands, reduce job stress, and improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these hypotheses.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors administered a time management inventory to nearly 300 principals in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, the fourth-largest school district in the USA. The authors analyzed scores on the inventory descriptively and used them to predict time-use data collected via in-person observations, a survey-based measure of job stress, and measures of perceived job effectiveness obtained from assistant principals and teachers in the school.

Findings

Principals with better time management skills allocate more time in classrooms and to managing instruction in their schools but spend less time on interpersonal relationship-building. Perhaps as a result of this tradeoff, the authors find that associations between principal time management skills and subjective assessments of principal performance are mixed. The authors find strong evidence, however, that time management skills are associated with lower principal job stress.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that building principals’ time management capacities may be a worthwhile strategy for increasing time on high-priority tasks and reducing stress.

Originality/value

This study is the first to empirically examine time management among school principals and link time management to key principal outcomes using large-scale data.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Ellen Goldring, Jason Grissom, Christine M. Neumerski, Richard Blissett, Joseph Murphy and Andrew Porter

Despite increased focus on the importance of the time principals spend on instructional leadership, there is little research on practical ways to help principals manage…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite increased focus on the importance of the time principals spend on instructional leadership, there is little research on practical ways to help principals manage their time to achieve this goal. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation of the school administration manager (SAM) process: a unique program designed to help principals orient their time toward instructional activities.

Design/methodology/approach

This mixed-methods study combines data from multiple sources including: case studies of four districts that involved interviews with principals and program staff in 16 schools; interviews with network-level staff and administrators; a survey of 387 principals and 378 program staff; and time use data collected by shadowers as well as a time-tracking calendar system for 373 principals.

Findings

Principals and their teams implemented the SAM process with relatively high fidelity. In addition, most participated in the program to increase time spent on instructional tasks. Indeed, principals’ time use shifted from managerial to instructional tasks as they implemented the program. However, there were important challenges related to the time and personnel resources required to implement the program as well as questions about the quality of the instructional leadership time spent.

Originality/value

This study describes not only time allocation, but also a process through which principals intentionally sought to shift their time toward instructional leadership activities. The insights gained from the implementation and outcomes of this process provide concrete direction for policymakers, practitioners and researchers looking for ways to change the time principals spend on instructional leadership.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2018

Jason Giersch and Christopher Dong

What do principals look for when hiring teachers? The purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge concerning what aspects of teacher quality are in demand among the…

Abstract

Purpose

What do principals look for when hiring teachers? The purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge concerning what aspects of teacher quality are in demand among the individuals who administer schools and make hiring decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Rather than employing interviews or surveys, the authors utilized a conjoint instrument that assembled teacher characteristics into fictitious applicant profiles. Participating North Carolina public school principals (n = 467) then chose among the computer-generated options and regression analysis allowed the authors to identify preferences in the aggregate.

Findings

Principals in this study preferred applicants with classroom experience, but those with 15 years were no more preferred than those with 5. They also preferred applicants with more education, but an advanced degree was no more preferred than a bachelor’s from a highly selective institution. Preference for teachers who are committed to state standards varied with schools’ performance on state tests.

Originality/value

Conjoint analysis is a useful tool for measuring preferences but is underutilized in research on education administration. This paper contributes not only to the body of knowledge about school principal behavior but also to the field’s familiarity of research techniques.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 56 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Samantha L. Viano and Seth B. Hunter

The purpose of this paper is to replicate prior findings on teacher-principal race congruence and teacher job satisfaction and extend the literature by investigating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to replicate prior findings on teacher-principal race congruence and teacher job satisfaction and extend the literature by investigating trends over time and if the relationship between race congruence and teacher job satisfaction differs by principal race and region.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample comes from four waves of cross-sectional data, the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey, administered between 2000 and 2012. The analysis is conducted using ordinary least squares and school-year fixed effects with a comprehensive set of covariates.

Findings

The relationship between race congruence and teacher job satisfaction is attenuating over time and is likely explained by the lower job satisfaction of white teachers who work for black principals. Some evidence indicates teacher-principal race congruence has greater salience in the Southern region of the country. Find evidence that teachers with race-congruent principals report more workplace support than their non-race congruent colleagues.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should investigate why racial congruence has more salience in the Southern region of the country and for white teachers who work with black principals. At the same time, results indicate that teacher-principal race congruence might no longer be a determinant of teacher job satisfaction, although further studies should continue investigating this relationship.

Originality/value

Findings on the changing nature of the relationship between principal-teacher race congruence and teacher job satisfaction over time as well as the differing nature of race congruence in the Southern region of the country are both novel findings in the literature.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

John M Majer, Hannah M Chapman and Leonard A Jason

– The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of two types of community-based, residential treatment programs among justice involved persons with dual diagnoses.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of two types of community-based, residential treatment programs among justice involved persons with dual diagnoses.

Design/methodology/approach

A randomized clinical trial examined treatment conditions among justice involved persons with substance use disorders who reported high baseline levels of psychiatric severity indicative of diagnosable psychiatric comorbidity. Participants (n=39) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions upon discharge from inpatient treatment for substance use disorders: a professionally staffed, integrated residential treatment setting (therapeutic community), a self-run residential setting (Oxford House), or a treatment-specific aftercare referral (usual care). Levels of psychiatric severity, a global estimate of current psychopathological problem severity, were measured at two years as the outcome.

Findings

Participants randomly assigned to residential conditions reported significant reductions in psychiatric severity whereas those assigned to the usual care condition reported significant increases. There were no significant differences in psychiatric severity levels between residential conditions.

Research limitations/implications

Findings suggest that cost-effective, self-run residential settings such as Oxford Houses provide benefits comparable to professionally run residential integrated treatments for justice involved persons who have dual diagnoses.

Social implications

Results support the utilization of low-cost, community-based treatments for a highly marginalized population.

Originality/value

Little is known about residential treatments that reduce psychiatric severity for this population. Results extend the body of knowledge regarding the effects of community-based, residential integrated treatment and the Oxford House model.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Mimi Engel and F. Chris Curran

The purpose of this paper is to explore variation across principals in terms of the number and types of strategies they engage in to find teachers to fill the vacancies in…

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1534

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore variation across principals in terms of the number and types of strategies they engage in to find teachers to fill the vacancies in their schools. The practices that the authors consider to be strategic are aligned with the district’s goals and objectives for teacher recruitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors selected 31 schools from the Chicago Public Schools system through a combination of stratified random sampling and purposive sampling. Through analysis of qualitative interviews with the 31 principals of these schools, the authors explore a range of principals’ hiring strategies and provide brief case examples to illuminate differences in hiring practices across principals.

Findings

The authors find that the majority of principals in the sample engage in relatively few of the practices considered strategic. Interestingly, sample principals who engaged in seven or more strategic practices were more likely to work in high schools than in elementary schools.

Research limitations/implications

While the range of strategic hiring practices the authors explore provides a starting point for analyzing principals’ hiring practices, it is important to recognize that the list of strategies the authors consider is not exhaustive. For instance, the context of the study did not allow the authors to analyze practices such as the consideration of teacher value-added scores.

Practical implications

This study should be replicated in other contexts in order to see whether and how principals’ hiring practices vary by country, geographic location, urbanicity, and other factors.

Originality/value

This study is the first, to the authors’ knowledge, to detail principals’ hiring practices in relation to their district’s teacher recruitment plan with the aim of adding to the knowledge base on teacher hiring.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Xinyi Bian and Jia Wang

The purpose of this integrative literature review was three-fold: to explore the phenomenon of women’s career interruptions as revealed by publications in the past two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this integrative literature review was three-fold: to explore the phenomenon of women’s career interruptions as revealed by publications in the past two decades, to propose a new career decision tree model (CDTM) and to outline an agenda for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted the integrative literature review approach proposed by Torraco (2005, 2016) and used a mind mapping application called MindMeister to synthesize 64 identified articles.

Findings

The proposed CDTM can assist those who are interested in exploring individuals’ career decisions to think systematically about career influencers at different levels.

Originality/value

The CDTM is significantly different from existing career models and theories in that it explains women’s career interruptions in a context-sensitive manner. This model can assist human resource development professionals in analyzing the influencers of women’s career decisions and tackling individual problems level by level.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Shuntao Liu, Zhixiong Yang, Zhijun Zhu, Liangliang Han, Xiangyang Zhu and Kai Xu

Slim and dexterous manipulators with long reaches can perform various exploration and inspection tasks in confined spaces. This paper aims to present the development of…

Abstract

Purpose

Slim and dexterous manipulators with long reaches can perform various exploration and inspection tasks in confined spaces. This paper aims to present the development of such a dexterous continuum manipulator for potential applications in the aviation industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Benefiting from a newly conceived dual continuum mechanism and the improved actuation scheme, this paper proposes a design of a slim and dexterous continuum manipulator. Kinematics modeling, simulation-based dimension synthesis, structural constructions and system descriptions are elaborated.

Findings

Experimental validations show that the constructed prototype possesses the desired dexterity to navigate through confined spaces with its kinematics calibrated and actuation compensation implemented. The continuum manipulator with different deployed tools (e.g. graspers and welding guns) would be able to perform inspections and other tasks at remote locations in constrained environments.

Research limitations/implications

The current construction of the continuum manipulator possesses quite some friction inside its structure. The bending discrepancy caused by friction could accumulate to an obvious level. It is desired to further reduce the friction, even though the actuation compensation had been implemented.

Practical implications

The constructed continuum manipulator could perform inspection and other tasks in confined spaces, acting as an active multi-functional endoscopic platform. Such a device could greatly facilitate routine tasks in the aviation industry, such as guided assembling, inspection and maintenance.

Originality/value

The originality and values of this paper mainly lay on the design, modeling, construction and experimental validations of the slim and dexterous continuum manipulator for the desired mobility and functionality in confined spaces.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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