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Purpose — This chapter presents research findings in relation to the place of the ability to be mobile in promoting social inclusion.Approach — A model outlining the…
Purpose — This chapter presents research findings in relation to the place of the ability to be mobile in promoting social inclusion.
Approach — A model outlining the relationships between social exclusion, well-being (satisfaction with life), bonding and bridging social capital, sense of community and trips, was explored. The difficulty of measuring complex intangibles in social science was recognised and a number of possible approaches to social capital were examined.
Findings — Despite the different ways of organising the data on social capital, the findings showed the same trends. It was found that the number of trips was important for the relationship between social capital and sense of community on social exclusion and well-being. Bonding and bridging social capital are important for both increasing social inclusion and well-being, both of which are strongly correlated. The number of trips taken by a person acts as a mediating variable to increase bridging social capital and decrease social exclusion. This research illustrates both the complexities and importance of definitions and measurement of social science concepts and the importance of considering their role in transport planning, where their use is new. This research adds a new area of understanding about the role of transport. It moves beyond a narrow view of travel needs and experiences, to the onset of understanding how transport can also facilitate intermediate goals related to social capital and social inclusion and how these social aspects then lead to enhanced well-being.
Purpose — This chapter considers some key policy implications of the research described in this book on links between transport disadvantage, social exclusion and…
Purpose — This chapter considers some key policy implications of the research described in this book on links between transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being.
Methodology — Two high-level policy frameworks are outlined and some research results are viewed through the lenses of these frameworks. The two frameworks are (1) place-based versus functional approaches and (2) economic versus social approaches.
Findings — Transport, land use and outreach opportunities are outlined as possible ways to tackle problems of transport disadvantage that may adversely impact social exclusion and well-being. These require place-based approaches. Difficulties in making the switch from traditional functionally based policy thinking to place-based, integrated approaches are highlighted. These difficulties pose a challenge for effective reduction in transport disadvantage and its associated risks of social exclusion and diminished well-being.
The chapter also shows how the traditional economic cost–benefit approach to transport policy becomes much closer to a social policy approach when the research results about the value of improved trip making, as it affects risks of social exclusion, are incorporated in the analysis. Minimum public transport service levels are suggested as meeting both economic and social policy goals in this regard. Community transport is seen as an effective way to tackle some problems of transport disadvantage but as possibly posing risks of entrenched exclusion for some.
Purpose — This chapter explores the concept of social exclusion, the evolution of the term, how it is defined and understood, the place in policy formation and its association with the need for mobility. The association between social exclusion and mobility is overviewed.
Methodology — The concept of social exclusion grew from an understanding that some people are not able to fully participate in mainstream society. Ideas around this were first discussed under the framework of income poverty, moved to ideas of multiple disadvantage and then has clustered around social exclusion. Although many factors have been subsumed under the concept, the ability to be mobile and how this is associated with social exclusion has not been fully explored.
Findings — It is argued that while social exclusion has brought ideas of non-participation in society more firmly into the political agenda, the changing definitions and understandings and failure to build knowledge systematically has hampered the effectiveness of the concept. Social exclusion is viewed in the research reported in this chapter as an issue of social justice defining the critical dimensions needed for a person to be included. Institutional and personal factors, and broad societal trends influence the extent of inclusion/exclusion a person experiences. It is likely that many of these impacts will be influenced by mobility, thus the importance of this research in elucidating what is meant by social exclusion and the key drivers that impact on a person’s ability to participate and maximise their well-being.
Purpose — This chapter explores measurement of some of the key concepts used in the research, particularly social exclusion, but also social capital and community connection. In contrast to psychology, other social sciences continue to debate conceptual terms and do not have measurement as a central concern. Thus, there is a need to provide a measurement framework before commencing the research project.
Methodology — This chapter is based on literature searches of how these concepts are understood, used and measured in social science. A lack of precision has possibly contributed to their omission from much current project evaluation and government policy decisions, including around transport. Five principles that have guided the formation of the measurement tool are outlined. This is followed by illustrations of measurement that has been used in key pieces of research.
Findings — Social exclusion is measured using five dimensions important for connection to society: income, employment, political activity, social support and participation. Threshold levels of exclusion are determined for each of these dimensions and the results added to obtain a rating or score for each of the respondents. Social capital is measured by the comprehensiveness of the participant’s social network and whether this network comprises bonding or bridging social capital. Although it is common to include the measurement of trust and reciprocity as part of social capital, networks has been deemed to be the most important component for policy development. Community connectedness is measured using an existing ‘Sense of Community Scale’, verified and commonly used in psychology.
This research provides accounting-ethics authors and administrators with a benchmark for accounting-ethics research. While Bernardi and Bean (2010) considered publications…
This research provides accounting-ethics authors and administrators with a benchmark for accounting-ethics research. While Bernardi and Bean (2010) considered publications in business-ethics and accounting’s top-40 journals this study considers research in eight accounting-ethics and public-interest journals, as well as, 34 business-ethics journals. We analyzed the contents of our 42 journals for the 25-year period between 1991 through 2015. This research documents the continued growth (Bernardi & Bean, 2007) of accounting-ethics research in both accounting-ethics and business-ethics journals. We provide data on the top-10 ethics authors in each doctoral year group, the top-50 ethics authors over the most recent 10, 20, and 25 years, and a distribution among ethics scholars for these periods. For the 25-year timeframe, our data indicate that only 665 (274) of the 5,125 accounting PhDs/DBAs (13.0% and 5.4% respectively) in Canada and the United States had authored or co-authored one (more than one) ethics article.
Many university students in the UK experience mental health problems and little is known about their overall mental health literacy and help-seeking behaviours. The…
Many university students in the UK experience mental health problems and little is known about their overall mental health literacy and help-seeking behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to ascertain levels of mental health literacy in UK university students and to examine whether mental health literacy is associated with better mental health outcomes and intentions to seek professional care.
A total of 380 university students at a university in the south of England completed online surveys measuring multiple dimensions of mental health literacy, help-seeking behaviour, distress, and well-being.
Mental health literacy in the students sampled was lower than seen in previous research. Women exhibited higher levels of mental health literacy than men and postgraduate students scored higher than undergraduate students. Participants with previous mental health problems had higher levels of mental health literacy than those with no history of mental health problems. Individuals were most likely to want to seek support from a partner or family member and most participants indicated they would be able to access mental health information online. Mental health literacy was significantly positively correlated with help-seeking behaviour, but not significantly correlated with distress or well-being.
Strategies, such as anonymous online resources, should be designed to help UK university students become more knowledgeable about mental health and comfortable with seeking appropriate support.
This study is the first to examine multiple dimensions of mental health literacy in UK university students and compare it to help-seeking behaviour, distress, and well-being.
The following bibliography focuses mainly on programs which can run on IBM microcomputers and compatibles under the operating system PC DOS/MS DOS, and which can be used…
The following bibliography focuses mainly on programs which can run on IBM microcomputers and compatibles under the operating system PC DOS/MS DOS, and which can be used in online information and documentation work. They fall into the following categories: