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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

Janet L. Hoffman and Eric M. Lowitt

The US retail industry seems headed toward a zero‐sum game, a place where growth comes from taking customers away from competitors. This paper aims to present three steps

Abstract

Purpose

The US retail industry seems headed toward a zero‐sum game, a place where growth comes from taking customers away from competitors. This paper aims to present three steps to reduce the risk of defection of customers.

Design/methodology/approach

Despite the widespread prevalence of loyalty programs in the retail industry, customer defection risk within the industry remains high. Research shows that 85 percent of the “loyal” customers are willing to shop elsewhere if properly enticed. In response, some retailers have adjusted their loyalty programs to align them better with what they believe matters most to their target customers.

Findings

The paper reveals that there are three key steps to achieving an effective loyalty program.

Research limitations/implications

In the summer of 2007, Accenture conducted ten independent but related surveys to assess behavioral loyalty of US retail customers in specific retail product categories (that is, retail segment markets). The ten surveys were conducted online simultaneously and were administered by a third‐party research vendor.

Practical implications

The paper offers this checklist for managers: align loyalty strategy with what matters most to target customers; recognize that price only buys volume but service earns continued loyalty; and use your loyalty strategy as both a defensive and an offensive weapon.

Originality/value

All loyalty programs are not equally effective. Retailers that ensure that their loyalty strategy is truly customer‐centric and use this strategy to both retain and acquire loyal customers will be the winners in retail's zero‐sum growth game.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Book part
Publication date: 1 February 2007

Dwight R. Merunka and Robert A. Peterson

Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1306-6

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2018

Ruth N. Bolton, Janet R. McColl-Kennedy, Lilliemay Cheung, Andrew Gallan, Chiara Orsingher, Lars Witell and Mohamed Zaki

The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers experiences involving new technology-enabled services, such as digital twins and automated social presence (i.e. virtual assistants and service robots).

Design/methodology/approach

Future customer experiences are conceptualized within a three-dimensional space – low to high digital density, low to high physical complexity and low to high social presence – yielding eight octants.

Findings

The conceptual framework identifies eight “dualities,” or specific challenges connected with integrating digital, physical and social realms that challenge organizations to create superior customer experiences in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets. The eight dualities are opposing strategic options that organizations must reconcile when co-creating customer experiences under different conditions.

Research limitations/implications

A review of theory demonstrates that little research has been conducted at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. Most studies focus on one realm, with occasional reference to another. This paper suggests an agenda for future research and gives examples of fruitful ways to study connections among the three realms rather than in a single realm.

Practical implications

This paper provides guidance for managers in designing and managing customer experiences that the authors believe will need to be addressed by the year 2050.

Social implications

This paper discusses important societal issues, such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency. It sets out potential avenues for service innovation in these areas.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about customer experiences in digital, physical and social realms in a new way, with insights for future service research, managers and public policy makers.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Janet Mifsud and Cristina Gavrilovici

Big Data analysis is one of the key challenges to the provision of health care to emerge in the last few years. This challenge has been spearheaded by the huge interest in…

Abstract

Big Data analysis is one of the key challenges to the provision of health care to emerge in the last few years. This challenge has been spearheaded by the huge interest in the “4Ps” of health care (predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory). Big Data offers striking development opportunities in health care and life sciences. Healthcare research is already using Big Data to analyze the spatial distribution of diseases such as diabetes mellitus at detailed geographic levels. Big Data is also being used to assess location-specific risk factors based on data of health insurance claims. Other studies in systems medicine utilize bioinformatics approaches to human biology which necessitate Big Data statistical analysis and medical informatics tools. Big Data is also being used to develop electronic algorithms to forecast clinical events in real time, with the intent to improve patient outcomes and thus reduce costs.

Yet, this Big Data era also poses critically difficult ethical challenges, since it is breaking down the traditional divisions between what belongs to public and private domains in health care and health research. Big Data in health care raises complex ethical concerns due to use of huge datasets obtained from different sources for varying reasons. The clinical translation of this Big Data is thus resulting in key ethical and epistemological challenges for those who use these data to generate new knowledge and the clinicians who eventually apply it to improve patient care.

Underlying this challenge is the fact that patient consent often cannot be collected for the use of individuals’ personal data which then forms part of this Big Data. There is also the added dichotomy of healthcare providers which use such Big Data in attempts to reduce healthcare costs, and the negative impact this may have on the individual with respect to privacy issues and potential discrimination.

Big Data thus challenges societal norms of privacy and consent. Many questions are being raised on how these huge masses of data can be managed into valuable information and meaningful knowledge, while still maintaining ethical norms. Maintaining ethical integrity may lack behind in such a fast-changing sphere of knowledge. There is also an urgent need for international cooperation and standards when considering the ethical implications of the use of Big Data-intensive information.

This chapter will consider some of the main ethical aspects of this fast-developing field in the provision of health care, health research, and public health. It will use examples to concretize the discussion, such as the ethical aspects of the applications of Big Data obtained from clinical trials, and the use of Big Data obtained from the increasing popularity of health mobile apps and social media sites.

Details

Ethics and Integrity in Health and Life Sciences Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-572-8

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Doan T. Nguyen, Janet R. McColl‐Kennedy and Tracey S. Dagger

This paper aims to argue that, traditionally, service recovery attempts have paid little attention to customer preferences. Despite attempts to recover the customer, firms…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to argue that, traditionally, service recovery attempts have paid little attention to customer preferences. Despite attempts to recover the customer, firms generally do not know if the recovery solution is what the customer expects. Hence, the paper seeks to examine whether customer recovery preferences influence customers' evaluation of the recovery attempt in terms of recovery satisfaction and repurchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a two‐stage qualitative study was conducted. Then the research model was tested empirically on a sample of 431 consumers using a multivariate analysis.

Findings

The findings support the argument that customers have distinct recovery preferences. Moreover, customers are satisfied with the service recovery solution only when it matches the most demanding recovery preference. Customers' recovery preferences have a significant impact on their satisfaction with recovery and their repurchase intentions.

Research limitations/implications

First, the model developed is tested on a cross‐sectional sample. Second, the measure of recovery satisfaction and repurchase intentions used here was relatively simple. Third, the study relies on repurchase intentions instead of actual behavioural data.

Practical limitations/implications

This research indicates that customers have a preference for how service recovery should be undertaken. Given these distinct recovery preferences, different recovery solutions should be applied to address each preference appropriately.

Originality/value

It is widely accepted in the service recovery literature that customers' perceptions of a service recovery attempt are often different to those of the service provider. However, this research suggests that customer recovery preferences need to be carefully considered given their effect on customer satisfaction and repurchase intentions.

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Nicholas J. Ashill, Janet Carruthers and Jayne Krisjanous

This paper proposes investigating a model of service recovery performance in a public health‐care setting.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes investigating a model of service recovery performance in a public health‐care setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Frontline hospital staff (administrative and nursing staff) representing a range of out‐patient departments/clinics in a New Zealand inner‐city public hospital completed a self‐administered questionnaire on organizational variables affecting their service recovery efforts, job satisfaction and intention to resign. Data obtained from the hospital were analyzed using the SEM‐based partial least squares (PLS) methodology.

Findings

The results show significant relationships between perceived managerial attitudes, work environment perceptions, service recovery performance and outcomes variables.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study are noted including the generalizability of the findings within a public health‐care environment. Suggestions for future research include an examination of other variables potentially important in service recovery efforts. A patient perspective would also be valuable.

Practical implications

The research advances understanding of frontline service recovery performance in a health‐care setting and the findings indicate that health‐care managers can take actions on a number of fronts to assist progress toward the achievement of frontline service recovery excellence.

Originality/value

Very little attention has been given to understanding the antecedents and outcomes of service recovery performance in the health‐care literature. By expanding earlier research in private sector industries, the study investigates a model of service recovery performance in a public health‐care setting.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Janet Marie Bennett

In the context of intense intercultural experience, the individual’s identity is often transformed by the forces of acculturation. Unexpectedly powerful demands…

Abstract

In the context of intense intercultural experience, the individual’s identity is often transformed by the forces of acculturation. Unexpectedly powerful demands, influences, and resistances buffet the values, beliefs, and behaviors of the sojourner, leading to confusion, and eventually resolution of profound identity issues. The resulting sense of being between two cultures or more, living at the edges of each, but rarely at the center, can be called cultural marginality. When these issues remain unresolved, the person is often confounded by the demands, and feels alienated in a state called encapsulated marginality. The constructive marginal resolves these questions by integrating choices from each culture of which the person is a part, choosing the appropriate frame of reference, and taking action appropriate for the context.

Global leaders need to recognize the characteristics of the marginal identity and leverage the skills the marginal brings to the organization. The mindset of hybrid professionals fosters increased creativity, culturally appropriate problem solving, and collaboration with other culture partners. Educators, trainers, and coaches can design developmental opportunities for sojourners to acculturate to new environments in a way that potentiates their intercultural competence and comfort with their bicultural mindset. By viewing a complex cultural identity as an asset to the organization, global leaders can avoid the common pitfall of overlooking cultural marginals and instead maximize their contribution to globalization.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Erik Solevad Nielsen

This study applies theoretical perspectives from urban, environmental, and organization studies to examine if “smart growth” represents an ecological restructuring of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study applies theoretical perspectives from urban, environmental, and organization studies to examine if “smart growth” represents an ecological restructuring of the political economy of conventional urban development, long theorized as a “growth machine” (Molotch, H. (1976) The city as growth machine: Toward a political economy of place. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 309–332; Logan & Molotch, 2007); the purpose is to determine if there is a “smart growth machine.”

Design

Nine smart growth projects (SGPs) in four cities in California and Oregon were identified and semistructured interviews were held with the respective developers, architects, and civic officials involved in their implementation process. Comparative, descriptive, and grounded approaches were used to generate themes from interviews and other data sources.

Findings

The findings suggest that an ecological modernization of urban political economy occurs through the coordination of entrepreneurial action, technical expertise, and “smart” regulation. Individual and institutional entrepreneurs shift the organizational field of urban development. Technical expertise is needed to make projects sustainable and financially feasible. Finally, a “smart” regulatory framework that balances regulations and incentives is needed to forge cooperative relationships between local governments and developers. This constellation of actors and institutions represents a smart growth machine.

Originality

The author questions whether urban growth can become “smart” using an original study of nine SGPs in four cities across California and Oregon.

Details

From Sustainable to Resilient Cities: Global Concerns and Urban Efforts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-058-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1981

Pamela R. Broadley

Published in its first edition in 1978, the Encyclopedia of Bioethics already deserves landmark status for several reasons including uniqueness of concept, overall quality…

Abstract

Published in its first edition in 1978, the Encyclopedia of Bioethics already deserves landmark status for several reasons including uniqueness of concept, overall quality and broad appeal. Previous articles in this column have traced the historical development of longstanding reference classics. Because the Encyclopedia is a relatively young tool, the substance of this review will depart somewhat from other essays in the series by focusing more on the content, organization and scope of the work rather than its evolution.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Book part
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Katharine K. Baker and Michelle Oberman

This paper evaluates the modern baseline presumption of nonconsent in sexual assault (rape) cases in light of different theories of sexuality (feminism on the one hand and…

Abstract

This paper evaluates the modern baseline presumption of nonconsent in sexual assault (rape) cases in light of different theories of sexuality (feminism on the one hand and sex positivism/queer theory on the other) and in light of how sexuality manifests itself in the lives of contemporary young women. The authors analyze social science literature on contemporary heterosexual practices such as sexting and hook-ups, as well as contemporary media imagery, to inform a contemporary understanding of the ways in which young people perceive and experience sex. Using this evidence as a foundation, the authors reconsider the ongoing utility of a baseline presumption of nonconsent in sexual assault cases. This paper demonstrates the complex relationship between women’s sexual autonomy, the contemporary culture’s encouragement of women’s celebration of their own sexual objectification and the persistence of high rates of unwanted sex. In the end, it demonstrates why a legal presumption against consent may neither reduce the rate of nonconsensual sex, nor raise the rate of reported rapes. At the same time, it shows how the presumption itself is unlikely to generate harmful consequences: if it deters anything, it likely deters unwanted sex, whether consented to or not.

Details

Special Issue: Feminist Legal Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-782-0

Keywords

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