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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1999

Peter Wyer and Jane Mason

The concept of empowerment has received a great deal of attention in recent years. However, the empowerment knowledge base is predominantly large company‐oriented with…

Abstract

The concept of empowerment has received a great deal of attention in recent years. However, the empowerment knowledge base is predominantly large company‐oriented with little evidence of understanding what empowerment means in a small business context. It is inappropriate to treat the small firm as a microcosm of a large organisation. The small business is qualitatively as well as quantitatively different and this article propounds that it is questionable whether the concept of empowerment and its various dimensions as portrayed in the literature are readily transferable to small businesses. It is suggested that empowering management approaches are key features of successful growth‐oriented small firms but the current body of empowerment literature fails to encapsulate the idiosyncrasies and informalities of the small business operation, and thus convey understanding of the unique and novel forms of empowerment which facilitate sustainable development. Case study insight is used to support these propositions.

Details

Participation and Empowerment: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-4449

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Peter Wyer, Jane Mason and Nick Theodorakopoulos

The paper proffers a tentative conceptualisation of the “small business strategic learning process”, demonstrating the complexity of the small firm learning and management…

Abstract

The paper proffers a tentative conceptualisation of the “small business strategic learning process”, demonstrating the complexity of the small firm learning and management task. The framework, built upon personal construct theory and learning theories, is elaborated through the grounding of relevant areas of the strategic management literature in an understanding of the distinctive managerial and behavioural features of the small business. The framework is then utilised to underpin consideration of the concepts of “organisational learning” and the “learning organisation” within a small firm developmental context. It is suggested that whilst organisational learning may be a key and effective small business management approach to underpin sustainable development, the learning organisation, as currently conceived in the mainstream literature, fails to recognise and address the idiosyncrasies, problems and constraints relating to sustainable small business development. There does appear, however, to be great potential for extending understanding of the learning organisation concept into the small business context. An indicative research agenda is suggested.

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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Peter Wyer and Jane Mason

The contemporary business environment is characterised by unknowable, unpredictable open‐ended change. This article, portraying the small business as a potential unique…

Abstract

The contemporary business environment is characterised by unknowable, unpredictable open‐ended change. This article, portraying the small business as a potential unique problem‐type, qualitatively as well as quantitatively different from the large company, uses personal construct theory to demonstrate how “complex learning” is an essential, but extremely difficult, process for the effecting of sustainable strategic development of the small firm in the face of an extremely uncertain environment. The utility of rational planning as a vehicle for strategically controlling open‐ended change is questioned and the potential for the adoption of an organisational learning perspective to enhance understanding as to how small firms learn about and act upon open‐ended change is proffered. This is supported by tentative findings of our empirical research into how small firms “complex learn” in practice. In turn this provides the foundations for consideration of the potential role of HRM in supporting the small firm strategy development process in terms of learning about and acting on open‐ended change.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Marian Duggan

In England and Wales, legislation pertaining to hate crime recognizes hostility based on racial identity, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, disability or…

Abstract

In England and Wales, legislation pertaining to hate crime recognizes hostility based on racial identity, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, disability or transgender identity. Discussions abound as to whether this legislation should also recognize hostility based on gender or misogyny. Taking a socio-legal analysis, the chapter examines hate crime, gender-based victimization and misogyny alongside the impact of victim identity construction, access to justice and the international nature of gendered harm. The chapter provides a comprehensive investigation of gender-based victimization in relation to targeted hostility to assess the potential for its inclusion in hate crime legislation in England and Wales.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-221-8

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Ryan Neill Stott, Merlin Stone and Jane Fae

The purpose of this research is to identify how managers can apply the results of academic research into the concept of business models for creating and evaluating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to identify how managers can apply the results of academic research into the concept of business models for creating and evaluating possible models for their businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the literature is followed by two case studies, from the airline and logistics industries, followed by recommendations based on both.

Findings

The findings are that there is relatively weak consensus among academics as to the definition and meaning of a business model and its components, and that the notion of generic business model applies better within rather than between industries, but that the discussion is a very fertile one for developing recommendations for managers.

Practical implications

The managerial implications of the study are that in their planning and strategizing, managers should factor in a proper analysis of the business model they currently use and one that they could use.

Originality/value

The study provides a useful addition to the literature on the practical implications of business models.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Karina Marshall-Tate, Eddie Chaplin, Jane McCarthy and Annmarie Grealish

Expert consensus is that people with an intellectual disability are over represented across the criminal justice setting (CJS). Primary research studies have been…

Abstract

Purpose

Expert consensus is that people with an intellectual disability are over represented across the criminal justice setting (CJS). Primary research studies have been conducted in police stations and prisons, but little is known about the prevalence of this population in the court setting. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a literature review to find out more about the prevalence of defendants with an intellectual disability in court.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was conducted using standard systematic review methodology (Julian et al., 2011) and the PRISMA reporting guidelines (Moher et al., 2009).

Findings

Two papers met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. The papers reported prevalence findings ranging from 10%–20%.

Research limitations/implications

Differences in study design, sampling, recruitment and diagnostic criteria affect the ability to make comparisons or synthesise findings.

Practical implications

It is important that future primary and secondary research studies standardise operational terms to enable true comparison between studies, systematic reviews and evidence syntheses.

Social implications

Defendants with an intellectual disability need to be identified to enable criminal justice professionals to make reasonable adjustments to proceedings and consider diversion and alternative disposal options. This will likely improve outcomes for this population and reduce recidivism.

Originality/value

This literature review contributes to the growing evidence base about meeting the criminal justice needs of people with a learning disability and recognition of the increased prevalence across the CJS and specifically within the court setting.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1974

Frances Neel Cheney

Communications regarding this column should be addressed to Mrs. Cheney, Peabody Library School, Nashville, Tenn. 37203. Mrs. Cheney does not sell the books listed here…

Abstract

Communications regarding this column should be addressed to Mrs. Cheney, Peabody Library School, Nashville, Tenn. 37203. Mrs. Cheney does not sell the books listed here. They are available through normal trade sources. Mrs. Cheney, being a member of the editorial board of Pierian Press, will not review Pierian Press reference books in this column. Descriptions of Pierian Press reference books will be included elsewhere in this publication.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2018

Sianne Alves and Jane English

To provide relevant, appropriate education to the female student population, their perceptions as women and preparedness to work in male-dominated spaces, such as the…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide relevant, appropriate education to the female student population, their perceptions as women and preparedness to work in male-dominated spaces, such as the construction workplace, is essential. The aim of this study, by the Professional Communication Studies and the HIV/AIDS Inclusivity and Change Unit, was to explore whether the students have been appropriately prepared.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology comprising six semi-structured focus groups was conducted with student cohorts in 2016 and 2017. The focus groups were drawn from different courses in 2016 and 2017 and comprised a total of 17 female students between the ages of 20 and 23 years old. Themes were developed by using NVivo for “literal” (Mason, 1996, p. 56) coding prior to manually coding the data using an interpretive lens. Eight dominant themes emerged from the data, which are discussed in the findings.

Findings

Responses were that the students perceived that their gender is advantageous to their entering the profession, as there is legislative support but that the challenge remains that they need to prove their worth more than their male counterparts. The curriculum fails to prepare and/or sensitise students to respond to gender-based challenges, some of which they have already experienced during vacation work.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is drawn from one institution. Whilst the university has a diverse student body, it is not confirmed that the sample groups were reflective of the broad base of women employed in the construction field in South Africa.

Social implications

The findings were aligned with those from developed countries. Whilst some challenges specific to developing countries were cited, they were not considered to be insurmountable.

Originality/value

Gender research is an important topic for countries which, like South Africa, have legislated that employment of women in construction be increased but do not underscore gender in curriculum development of construction courses in universities.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2017

Siphokazi Koyana and Roger B. Mason

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the lessons that could be learnt from the first year of implementing the Wholesale and Retail Sector Education and Training…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the lessons that could be learnt from the first year of implementing the Wholesale and Retail Sector Education and Training Authority’s Rural Development Programme.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory, qualitative study involved unemployed people from a rural location in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. A focus group and in-depth interviews were held with the current learners, the programme manager, the skills training providers, and the royal custodian of the locality.

Findings

While highlighting the factors that enhance success as well as those that impede development, the study found that the learnership contributed significantly to social transformation through rural entrepreneurship. It empowers disadvantaged women and youths to gain access and skills which, if the recommended measures to sustain the programme are implemented, could enable them to grow bigger businesses.

Research limitations/implications

Since this was an exploratory, qualitative study, the limitations of a small, convenience sample need to be overcome by a larger, quantitative study, and a more complete collection of accurate secondary data.

Originality/value

Despite the obvious limitations, this study has contributed to the literature on both rural entrepreneurship and transformation in South Africa. Both are under-researched topics, despite transformation being a socio-political imperative and entrepreneurship, especially in rural areas, being a key to overcoming South Africa’s high unemployment rate.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Bridget A. Harris

As the role and uptake of digital media, devices and other technologies increases, so has their presence in our lives. Technology has revolutionised the speed, type and…

Abstract

As the role and uptake of digital media, devices and other technologies increases, so has their presence in our lives. Technology has revolutionised the speed, type and extent of communication and contact between individuals and groups, transforming temporal, geographic and personal boundaries. There have undoubtedly been benefits associated with such shifts, but technologies have also exacerbated existing patterns of gendered violence and introduced new forms of intrusion, abuse and surveillance. In order to understand and combat harm and, protect and empower women, criminologists must investigate these practices. This chapter discusses how technology has transformed the enactment of violence against women.

Typically, studies have focussed on particular types of technology-facilitated violence as isolated phenomenon. Here, the author examines, more holistically, a range of digital perpetration: by persons unknown, who may be known and are known to female targets. These digital harms should, the author contends, be viewed as part of what Kelly (1988) conceptualised as a ‘continuum of violence’ (and Stanko, 1985 as ‘continuums of unsafety’) to which women are exposed, throughout the course of our lives. These behaviours do not occur in a vacuum. Violence is the cause and effect of inequalities and social control, which manifests structurally and institutionally, offline and online. Technologies are shaped by these forces, and investigating the creation, governance and use of technologies provides insight how violence is enacted, fostered and normalised.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

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