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Article

Jan-Erik Vahlne, Inge Ivarsson and Claes G. Alvstam

This paper aims to contribute to the debate concerning the asserted end of the globalization process.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the debate concerning the asserted end of the globalization process.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a description of the evolution of all Swedish MNEs, the 50 largest companies and the ten truly global MNEs, building on data compiled by the authors, mainly from annual reports.

Findings

The largest Swedish MNEs have continued to globalize and have at the same time improved their financial performance during the period of study, 2010-2016.

Practical implications

The proposition that multinationals are heading home cannot be confirmed in the Swedish case. There is therefore a need to compare Swedish experiences with other national examples to better generalize the findings.

Social implications

The political decisions regarding external trade and foreign direct investment should support continuous liberalization and facilitation of cross-border economic interaction.

Originality/value

As Swedish MNEs are more globalized than the average in advanced economies, this study offers insight into the contemporary internationalization process.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article

Jan-Erik Vahlne, Mattias Hamberg and Roger Schweizer

Accentuating the concept of management under uncertainty in the Uppsala internationalization process model, the purpose of this paper is to develop a model for describing…

Abstract

Purpose

Accentuating the concept of management under uncertainty in the Uppsala internationalization process model, the purpose of this paper is to develop a model for describing how managers act while keeping uncertainty at an acceptable level.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors perform two empirical studies to underpin the model they construct. First, a survey of 309 chief executive officers and chief financial officers in large, publicly listed international firms in the Nordic region on managerial risk perceptions and, second, a case study of Volvo Car Corporation and its endeavors when developing new car models for the Chinese market on a new platform – a process characterized by unprecedented uncertainty.

Findings

The proposed model describing managers’ behavior under uncertainty contains elements such as adjusting/proceeding in small steps, reducing uncertainty via learning, building relationships with important parties in the environment to avoid unforeseen changes and re-dos (i.e. starting all over again) and, perhaps most important, acting despite uncertainty.

Originality/value

The paper highlights a central, though forgotten, concept of the Uppsala internationalization process model, i.e. management under uncertainty, and, thereby, opens a new path for research on how manager behave under the sway of uncertainty.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Book part

Jean Boddewyn

This chapter complements the one that appeared as “History of the AIB Fellows: 1975–2008” in Volume 14 of this series (International Business Scholarship: AIB Fellows on…

Abstract

This chapter complements the one that appeared as “History of the AIB Fellows: 1975–2008” in Volume 14 of this series (International Business Scholarship: AIB Fellows on the First 50 Years and Beyond, Jean J. Boddewyn, Editor). It traces what happened under the deanship of Alan Rugman (2011–2014) who took many initiatives reported here while his death in July 2014 generated trenchant, funny, and loving comments from more than half of the AIB Fellows. The lives and contributions of many other major international business scholars who passed away from 2008 to 2014 are also evoked here: Endel Kolde, Lee Nehrt, Howard Perlmutter, Stefan Robock, John Ryans, Vern Terpstra, and Daniel Van Den Bulcke.

Details

Perspectives on Headquarters-subsidiary Relationships in the Contemporary MNC
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-370-2

Keywords

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Article

Jan Johanson and Jan‐Erik Vahlne

The contemporary relevance of the so‐called UppsalaInternationalisation Model is discussed. This is a framework advanced bya number of Swedish colleagues describing the…

Abstract

The contemporary relevance of the so‐called Uppsala Internationalisation Model is discussed. This is a framework advanced by a number of Swedish colleagues describing the typical process of “going international”. Johanson and Vahlne respond to the criticisms of the model they proposed in the 1970s and relate it to the Eclectic Paradigm Model and the Networking literature. The concepts of the advantage package and the advantage cycle in the internationalisation context are also introduced.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Book part

Jan-Erik Vahlne and Jan Johanson

In this paper we describe the evolution of the Uppsala model, which we see as a gradual substitution of economics-type assumptions with ones derived from the behavioral…

Abstract

In this paper we describe the evolution of the Uppsala model, which we see as a gradual substitution of economics-type assumptions with ones derived from the behavioral theory of the firm and from empirical studies of international firm behavior. We rely upon them to introduce a new version of the Uppsala model. To decrease the traditional focus on the activity of manufacturing and increase attention to the entrepreneurial and exchange activities of international companies, we renamed these firms “multinational business enterprises” (MBEs). We end with a plea to improve the relevance of empirical research in the international-business (IB) area by not only relying upon realistic assumptions but also performing longitudinal studies.

Details

Multidisciplinary Insights from New AIB Fellows
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-038-4

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Article

Jan-Erik Vahlne and Jan Johanson

This paper seeks to offer a model on the evolution of the multinational business enterprise (MBE). It is meant to be an alternative to the eclectic paradigm, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to offer a model on the evolution of the multinational business enterprise (MBE). It is meant to be an alternative to the eclectic paradigm, the preeminent theoretical tool applied in studies of the multinational enterprise (MNE) and foreign direct investment. The label MBE aims at moving focus from structure of production to change processes in business relations and entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

While the eclectic paradigm is grounded in neo-classical economics meant primarily to be applied in studies of macroeconomic interest and is based on assumptions not applicable in studies of individual firms, the model of the MBE is meant to be used in studies at the micro-level. It is rooted in assumptions consistent with behavioural theory consequently being more realistic. The model is based on the Uppsala model with input from studies on dynamic capabilities, entrepreneurship research and research on management under uncertainty.

Findings

The realistic assumptions of the model imply that it is relevant for understanding the dynamics of strategy and management of the MBE.

Research limitations/implications

As the model aims at enriching our understanding of the dynamics of the MBE the paper recommends empirical longitudinal studies of firms.

Originality/value

Realistic and relevant assumptions imply that the model differs in critical respects from received theory in international business.

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Article

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Article

Kam C. Chan, Hung‐Gay Fung and Wai K. Leung

We examine the citations from four international business (IB) journals over 2000‐2004 to show the areas, the journals, and the institutions that impact IB research. The…

Abstract

We examine the citations from four international business (IB) journals over 2000‐2004 to show the areas, the journals, and the institutions that impact IB research. The leading works that influence IB research are primarily management journals, scholarly books, and IB journals. IB research is published in non‐IB journals, as well and this has influenced the recent research in IB journals. U.S. and non‐U.S. academic institutions and non‐academic organizations are among the top 100 institutions that impact IB research, indicating that this research is a truly global endeavor. Finally, recent IB research is influenced more by recent published research than by past research. Scholarly books have become less influential, while the economics, finance, and marketing journals show no change in the influence on IB research over time.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Book part

Thomas Hutzschenreuter, Un-Seok Han and Ingo Kleindienst

Managerial intentionality has been assumed to be the most differentiating, but also the most neglected factor influencing internationalization. Although various scholars…

Abstract

Managerial intentionality has been assumed to be the most differentiating, but also the most neglected factor influencing internationalization. Although various scholars have emphasized its relevance, the key question still remains unanswered: What is managerial intentionality and why and how does it matter? Researchers share the view that internationalization paths are a joint outcome of environmental factors, path dependence and learning, and managerial intentionality. However, although managerial intentionality is argued to be an important factor, it is rather taken as a “given.” Therefore, we step back and take a closer look at its very nature and relevance for international business research.

Details

The Past, Present and Future of International Business & Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-085-9

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Article

Erik S. Rasmussan, Tage Koed Madsen and Felicitas Evangelista

Attempts to consider how a founder has reduced equivocality in relation to support networks and reducing risks, especially in an international environment. Presents the…

Abstract

Attempts to consider how a founder has reduced equivocality in relation to support networks and reducing risks, especially in an international environment. Presents the case studies of five Danish and Australian born global companies. Considers different global models and their limitations. Presents the findings of recent surveys in this area. Concludes that internationalization has not been the primary objective in the founding process and gives direction for further research.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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