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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Jarmo Vakkuri, Jan-Erik Johanson, Nancy Chun Feng and Filippo Giordano

In addressing policy problems, it is difficult to disentangle public policies from private efforts, business institutions and civic activities. Societies may acknowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

In addressing policy problems, it is difficult to disentangle public policies from private efforts, business institutions and civic activities. Societies may acknowledge that all these domains have a role in accomplishing social aims, but there are fundamental problems in understanding why, how and with what implications this occurs. Drawing upon the insights from the papers of this special issue, the authors aim to advance the understanding of governance and accountability in different contexts of hybridity, hybrid governance and organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conceptualize common theoretical origins of hybrid organizations and the ways in which they create and enact value by reflecting on the articles of the special issue. Furthermore, the authors propose agendas for future research into hybrid organizations.

Findings

Hybrid organizations can be conceptualized through two types of lenses: (1) the dimensions of hybridity (ownership, institutional logics, funding and control) and (2) their approaches to value creation (mixing, compromising and legitimizing).

Practical implications

This article provides more detailed and comprehensive understanding of hybridity. This contribution has also important practical implications for actors, such as politicians, managers, street-level bureaucrats, professionals, auditors and accountants who may be enveloped in various hybrid settings, policy contexts and multi-faceted interfaces between public, private and the civil society sector.

Originality/value

Hybridity lenses reveal novel connections between four types of hybrid institutional contexts: state-owned enterprises (SOEs), non-profit organizations (NPOs), social enterprises (SEs) and municipally owned corporations (MOCs). This paper provides theoretical instruments for doing so.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Jarmo Vakkuri and Jan-Erik Johanson

This paper aims to analyse performance measurement ambiguities in hybrid universities. In accounting research, performance measurement of universities has been discussed…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse performance measurement ambiguities in hybrid universities. In accounting research, performance measurement of universities has been discussed in detail, and there is some research on impacts of hybridity in institutional systems. However, there is a particular need in accounting research for more sophisticated theorizations of the ambiguities associated with measuring performance in hybrid organizations. Moreover, there is a dearth of accounting-related interdisciplinary studies conceptualizing the hybridity of universities with important implications for measuring and reporting performance. This paper fills this research gap by providing more elaborate basis for conceptualizing performance measurement ambiguities through the lenses of hybrid universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors critically scrutinize the promise of performance measurement in hybrid universities and explore why it may result in new policy problems. Questions asked are as follows: How can we better understand those institutional mechanisms through which the promise of performance measurement may ultimately result in new forms of ambiguities and unexpected outcomes, and what are the specific characteristics of hybridity that make those mechanisms possible in universities?

Findings

The authors propose a conceptual model for studying universities in hybrid performance settings. The model provides a new inter-disciplinary approach for conceptualizing performance measurement ambiguities in universities when they are influenced by hybridity, hybrid arrangements and hybrid governance.

Originality/value

This paper provides more elaborate basis for understanding hybridity of universities, not only through reforms for combining business, government and collegial professional logics (e.g. corporatization, marketization) or through new hybrid mixes of professions but also as a more comprehensive, inter-disciplinary understanding of institutional structures, logics and practices at modern universities.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Robin Roslender

The paper sets out to identify the key role that Jan‐Erik Grojer's work on human resource costing and accounting played in linking initial developments in accounting for…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper sets out to identify the key role that Jan‐Erik Grojer's work on human resource costing and accounting played in linking initial developments in accounting for people with the more recent advances associated with the emergence of the intellectual capital concept.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is in the form of an essay that briefly considers the history of approaches to the challenge of accounting for people.

Findings

The recent developments associated with intellectual capital highlight the importance and value of adopting a rather wider conception of accounting for people.

Originality/value

The paper provides a provocative introduction to the topic of accounting for people and as such may be of value to both newcomers to the field and those who are simply intrigued by the idea itself.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Ulf Johanson

The purpose of this paper is to draw on the literature debating research policy, research and the role of researchers, in discussing a single researcher's (Jan‐Erik

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw on the literature debating research policy, research and the role of researchers, in discussing a single researcher's (Jan‐Erik Gröjer's) research during the 1980s and 1990s.

Design/methodology/approach

Jan‐Erik Gröjer's publications during the period are compared with different research modes 1 and 2, communalism, universalism, disinterestedness, originality and scepticism and PLACE within this polarized world, i.e. between demands from different research ideologies universities as well as individual researchers perform their research.

Findings

This paper can be read as both a contribution to the debate about the researcher's role and as a tribute to a friend who was able to investigate and practise different roles: normative and critical, theoretical and applied and provocative and humble, to name a few.

Research limitations/implications

Further case studies of single researchers could serve as a valuable input to the discussion of different research ideologies.

Practical implications

The paper could be used in, e.g., doctoral student education when discussing the researcher's role but also when discussing the role of university research in general.

Originality/value

The used research modes have not before been analyzed using a single researcher as a case. It could be useful for individual researchers as well as in discussions about management of universities.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Jan Johanson and Jan‐Erik Vahlne

The contemporary relevance of the so‐called UppsalaInternationalisation Model is discussed. This is a framework advanced bya number of Swedish colleagues describing the…

Abstract

The contemporary relevance of the so‐called Uppsala Internationalisation Model is discussed. This is a framework advanced by a number of Swedish colleagues describing the typical process of “going international”. Johanson and Vahlne respond to the criticisms of the model they proposed in the 1970s and relate it to the Eclectic Paradigm Model and the Networking literature. The concepts of the advantage package and the advantage cycle in the internationalisation context are also introduced.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Jan-Erik Vahlne and Jan Johanson

In this paper we describe the evolution of the Uppsala model, which we see as a gradual substitution of economics-type assumptions with ones derived from the behavioral…

Abstract

In this paper we describe the evolution of the Uppsala model, which we see as a gradual substitution of economics-type assumptions with ones derived from the behavioral theory of the firm and from empirical studies of international firm behavior. We rely upon them to introduce a new version of the Uppsala model. To decrease the traditional focus on the activity of manufacturing and increase attention to the entrepreneurial and exchange activities of international companies, we renamed these firms “multinational business enterprises” (MBEs). We end with a plea to improve the relevance of empirical research in the international-business (IB) area by not only relying upon realistic assumptions but also performing longitudinal studies.

Details

Multidisciplinary Insights from New AIB Fellows
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-038-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2001

Jan-Erik Johanson

The aim of this study is to assess the significance of social capital in a public organization according to two theoretical frameworks. Following the structural hole…

Abstract

The aim of this study is to assess the significance of social capital in a public organization according to two theoretical frameworks. Following the structural hole theory (Burt, 1992), a sparse social network enables employees to gain control and information benefits. According to the social capital theory (Coleman, 1988), a cohesive social network creates trust and an obligation to cooperate. The theories describe favorable outcomes of the opposite poles of social structure, but the discussion shows that the social capital might not be realized because of unfavorable contextual factors. Empirical findings indicate that a sparse ego network increases an employee's indirect control and that a dense work unit network increases trust in the democracy of decision making. The discussion suggests that a sparse social network might be most beneficial to a bureaucratic organization and that cohesiveness does not automatically induce commitment if it is not supported by favorable social norms. Unless prerequisites of social interaction are well secured, the organization faces the risk of having inadequate levels of social cohesion, which might impede the creation of social capital. In conclusion, the management is faced with the challenge of social liabilities arising from both social cohesion and the lack of it.

Details

Social Capital of Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-770-8

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Kaisa Henttonen, Minna Janhonen and Jan‐Erik Johanson

From the structural perspective of social‐capital theory, this research investigates how a team's social‐network relationships affect its performance. More specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

From the structural perspective of social‐capital theory, this research investigates how a team's social‐network relationships affect its performance. More specifically, it concerns the type of work‐group‐internal connectedness in instrumental and expressive networks that is associated with enhanced team performance, and whether knowledge mediates these effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was survey based, involving 76 work teams and a total of 499 employees in 48 organisations. The work teams carried out fairly knowledge‐intensive but only moderately complex tasks, some of which were routine in nature.

Findings

Both dense and fragmented instrumental‐network structures affect work‐team performance. However, fragmentation in expressive networks has a negative impact. Furthermore, the mediation results give empirical support to the implicit understanding that only instrumental networks transfer knowledge, especially if they are dense.

Research limitations/implications

The results indicate that social‐network relationships affect team performance and also provide access to social capital (here knowledge). However, instrumental and expressive networks differ in terms of theoretical and practical implications. Future research could overcome the limitations of this study through increasing the sample size and focusing on much more fine‐grained intervening mechanisms (here knowledge sharing).

Practical implications

The recommendation to managers is to stimulate dense instrumental relationships in order to facilitate knowledge sharing and avoid overly fragmented expressive relationships.

Originality/value

First, in examining the social structure of both instrumental and expressive relationships this study responds to the growing call in organisational theory for research into the social content of social networks. Second, the contribution of this research paper lies in directly testing whether team knowledge mediates the effects of advice‐network structures on team performance.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2014

Kaisa Henttonen, Jan-Erik Johanson and Minna Janhonen

– The focus in this paper is on the extent to which bonding and bridging social relationships predict the performance effectiveness and attitudinal (identity) outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The focus in this paper is on the extent to which bonding and bridging social relationships predict the performance effectiveness and attitudinal (identity) outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was survey-based, involving 76 work teams and a total of 499 employees in 48 organisations.

Findings

The analysis reveals a positive relationship between both bonding and bridging relationships and performance effectiveness and attitudinal outcomes. Team identity mediates the relationship between the team ' s social-network structure and its performance effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The research investigates the performance effectiveness and attitudinal outcomes of social networks simultaneously, which is rare, but for study-design reasons fails to investigate behavioural outcomes. More extensive data would reveal more about the possible interaction between bridging and bonding.

Practical implications

In order to improve performance effectiveness managerial attention should focus on building a team and social networks.

Originality/value

The research shows that team identity fully mediates the influence of bonding and bridging social relationships. This finding sheds light on the processes that mediate performance effectiveness, which in turn facilitate understanding of how team dynamics lead to differing performance levels. The results also reveal how the type of social network affects the creation of a team identity: individuals identify with the team through the social networks to which they belong both within it and outside. Thus, team identity matters given the evidence suggesting that those who identify more with their work teams perform more effectively.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Kaisa Henttonen, Minna Janhonen, Jan‐Erik Johanson and Kaisu Puumalainen

Businesses are increasingly using teams as their fundamental organisational unit. This paper aims to explore the impact of demographic antecedents and the social‐network…

Abstract

Purpose

Businesses are increasingly using teams as their fundamental organisational unit. This paper aims to explore the impact of demographic antecedents and the social‐network structure, measured in terms of task‐related advice‐network density, centralisation and fragmentation, on work‐team performance. The paper seeks to examine: the impact of the social‐network structure (dense, fragmented or centralised) on work‐team performance and the origins of the social structure. It also tests whether team diversity (in terms of variety with regard to gender and separation with regard to age and education) has an impact on team performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted on 76 work teams (499 employees) representing 48 different organisations.

Findings

With regard to the first question, density was positively related to team performance. The impact of advice‐network fragmentation was also positive, and this is in line with the results of other studies focusing on teams conducting standard tasks. In addressing the second question the paper explored whether diversity as variety (age) and diversity as separation (age and education) had an effect on the work team's social‐network structure. Age and education had no effect, but gender diversity was related negatively to density and positively to fragmentation. It was also related negatively to team performance.

Originality/value

The contribution of this research is twofold in that it explores social‐structure effects on team performance and examines the possible antecedents of the team's social structure. The results of the investigation strengthen the rationale behind integrating the literature on social‐network analysis and teams.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

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