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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1909

THIS scheme of exact classification has now been long enough upon trial to justify the publication of a few explanatory notes, adjustments, and revisions which may be…

Abstract

THIS scheme of exact classification has now been long enough upon trial to justify the publication of a few explanatory notes, adjustments, and revisions which may be useful to present and future users of the system. For an entirely new scheme, which to some extent broke fresh ground, its reception has been extremely kind and flattering, and although it has not escaped criticism, nothing has appeared which has been anything but reasonable and helpful. A surprising circumstance has been that, notwithstanding the very controversial nature of much of the subject, so few points of difference have appeared. These are all more or less directed against the mere placing of certain topics and do not to any extent reflect upon the theory or structure of the system as a whole. One mistake has been made, however, of a more important nature, but this must have arisen either through misapprehension or carelessness. It has been assumed that the Subject Classification claims to be thoroughly scientific, and that each class is arranged in a logical and evolutionary order, so as to modulate or merge naturally into its successor. Any modest claim which may have been made to an attempted logical order is invariably qualified by a statement in the “Introduction” to the effect that such perfect order is only to be expected to a very limited extent. On page eight it is stated that—“The departments of human knowledge are so numerous, their intersections so great, their changes so frequent, and their variety so confusing, that it is impossible to show that they proceed from one source or germ, or that they can be arranged so that each enquirer will find the complete literature of his special subject at one fixed place.” All through the tables and the introduction the same kind of limitation is insisted upon, and it can only be due to misunderstanding to say that I have made such a preposterous claim to sequential perfection. No librarian who has attempted to compile a system of exact classification would ever dream of claiming that he did more than get as near as possible to an ideal arrangement in accordance with his basal plan.

Details

New Library World, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Abdollah Noorizadeh, Mahdi Mahdiloo and Reza Farzipoor Saen

The purpose of this paper is to propose a data envelopment analysis (DEA) method for customers' evaluation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a data envelopment analysis (DEA) method for customers' evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces a variable return to scale (VRS) cross‐efficiency (one of the DEA models) to evaluate customers. This new model can consider ratio values and give a complete ranking of customers.

Findings

It is found that the proposed model can evaluate customers in a multi criteria context; does not demand weights from the decision maker; and can consider both the ratio and absolute numbers. An aggressive form of the VRS model is formulated to evaluate the peer‐appraisal value of customers instead of self‐appraisal.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no reference that uses cross‐efficiency model with the ratio values for customers' evaluation.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1977

SO the miners have, by a pretty massive vote and against their leaders' advice and hopes, turned down an offer of extra payment tied to greater production. No form of…

Abstract

SO the miners have, by a pretty massive vote and against their leaders' advice and hopes, turned down an offer of extra payment tied to greater production. No form of incentive scheme whatever will be considered, they say.

Details

Work Study, vol. 26 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-727-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

David G. Swindley

Details the history of the co‐operative movement and societies fromthe beginning in 1844 to the present day. Describes the principles onwhich the co‐operative ideal was…

Abstract

Details the history of the co‐operative movement and societies from the beginning in 1844 to the present day. Describes the principles on which the co‐operative ideal was based and how those still exist and are worked out in the 1990s. Discusses the Co‐operative Wholesale Society and the variety of its outlets (i.e. insurance, banking, travel, funerals, pharmacy, property, food and non‐food) and the formation of the Central Regional Co‐operative Society Ltd by the amalgamation of a number of smaller societies. Looks in detail at CRCS′s management structure, trading outlets and other activities; and also at its financial base, performance and planning. Discusses CRCS′s market position in terms of traditional competitors and new ones such as the German based Aldi.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2019

Jan Gunter Langhof and Stefan Güldenberg

Management literature commonly suggests authoritarian leadership (AL) as the ideal leadership style during crises and extreme situations. This study aims to question this…

Abstract

Purpose

Management literature commonly suggests authoritarian leadership (AL) as the ideal leadership style during crises and extreme situations. This study aims to question this view, exploring servant leadership (SL) as an alternative.

Design/methodology/approach

In the field of leadership research, surveys and interviews are the most dominant research methods. In light of this dominance, this paper draws on a rather unorthodox research approach: a historical examination.

Findings

The elaborations in this paper suggest that SL exerts a higher influence on followers than AL, when organizational structures are absent or disregarded. Consequently, the higher influence of SL implies a lower need for regulations and directives within organizations.

Practical implications

Bureaucracy and red tape can be reduced. Particularly in situations of crises, SL’s relatively reduced reliance on formalized organizational structures can be advantageous to leaders.

Originality/value

The relationship among leadership (SL and AL) and formalized organizational structures is elaborated and illustrated in a historical examination.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Brian Sealy

Most libraries already have some documentation. Software vendors provide manuals for the “out‐of‐the‐box” programs they sell. The bibliographic utilities also provide…

Abstract

Most libraries already have some documentation. Software vendors provide manuals for the “out‐of‐the‐box” programs they sell. The bibliographic utilities also provide documentation, which libraries use for guidance on entering data into the utilities. System documentation may exist also in scattered guides, “cheat sheets,” and “how to” manuals that have been developed for staff use as the need has arisen. Relevant documentation may reside even in non‐library sources. With all this existing documentation, one might conclude that there is no need for yet more system documentation. Yet it is precisely because of the scattered nature of the documentation, the selective use of these sources, the inadequacy of some of the sources, and, most importantly, the need for standardized input into the database that there is a need to develop adequate documentation for a particular library's system.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

VINE is produced at least four times a year with the object of providing up‐to‐date news of work being done in the automation of housekeeping processes, principally in the…

Abstract

VINE is produced at least four times a year with the object of providing up‐to‐date news of work being done in the automation of housekeeping processes, principally in the UK. Ittis edited and substantially written by the Information Officer for Library Automation based, from June 1st 1984, at the Polytechnic of Central London and supported by a grant from the British Library Research and Development Department. Copyright for the articles rests with the British Library Board and opinions expressed in VINE do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the British Library. The subscription for 1984 to VINE is: £23 for UK subscribers, £26 to overseas subscribers (including airmail delivery). Second and subsequent copies to the same address are charged at £14 for UK and £16 for overseas. VINE is available in either paper or microfiche copy and all back issues are available on microfiche.

Details

VINE, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1974

Richard R. Centing

There is not enough space in this introduction to present a definitive analysis of the word serial, or even of the qualification of the term for this column, reference…

Abstract

There is not enough space in this introduction to present a definitive analysis of the word serial, or even of the qualification of the term for this column, reference serial, and I would refer all such questions to the monographs treating the subject of serial bibliography. The purpose of this column simply is to review abstracting services, indexes, digests, serial bibliographies, loose‐leaf updating services, yearbooks, reviewing services, and annual guides and directories which are issued on a continuing basis for reference uses. Serials to be generally excluded from review in “Reference Serials” include monographic series, encyclopedic sets, proceedings, magazines and government publications, all of which are either treated elsewhere in RSR or other journals of the profession. There is no clear‐cut division that will define the coverage of this column since some series like annual reviews, which collect papers on a specific topic, deserve to be treated as reference serials, and some magazines are so highly specialized that they are in essence abstracts and indexes.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Mathias Vermeulen, Tom Claessens, Benjamin Van Der Smissen, Cedric S. Van Holsbeke, Jan W. De Backer, Peter Van Ransbeeck and Pascal Verdonck

The purpose of this paper is to use rapid prototyping technology, in this case fused deposition modeling (FDM), to manufacture 2D and 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use rapid prototyping technology, in this case fused deposition modeling (FDM), to manufacture 2D and 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) compatible patient‐specific airway models.

Design/methodology/approach

This research has been performed through a case study where patient‐specific airway geometry was used to manufacture a PIV compatible model. The sacrificial kernel of the airways was printed in waterworks™ which is a support material used by Stratasys Maxum FDM devices. Transparent silicone with known refractive index was vacuum casted around the kernel and after curing out, the kernel was removed by washing out in sodium hydroxide.

Findings

The resulting PIV model was tested in an experimental PIV setup to check the PIV compatibility. The results showed that the model performs quite well when the refractive index (RI) of the silicone and the fluid are matched.

Research limitations/implications

Drawbacks such as the surface roughness, due to the size of the printing layers, and the yellowing of the silicone, due to the wash out of the kernel, need to be overcome.

Originality/value

The paper presents the manufacturing process for making complex thick walled patient‐specific PIV models starting from a strong workable sacrificial kernel. This removable kernel is obtained by switching the building and the support materials of the FDM machine. In this way, the kernel was printed in support material while the building material was used to support the kernel during printing. The model was tested in a PIV setup and the results show that the airway model is suitable for performing particle image velocimetry.

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