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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Henrik Pålsson, Lena Winslott Hiselius, Sten Wandel, Jamil Khan and Emeli Adell

The Swedish government is likely to implement longer and heavier road freight vehicles, so-called high-capacity vehicles (HCVs), in the near future. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The Swedish government is likely to implement longer and heavier road freight vehicles, so-called high-capacity vehicles (HCVs), in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to analysis the expected effects on the whole transport system regarding tonne-kilometres, vehicle-kilometres on road, CO2 and socio-economics with three possible implementation strategies (HCVs on all roads, a designated road network and a designated road network with a kilometre-based truck charge) and two vehicle types (74 t/25.25 m and 74 t/34 m).

Design/methodology/approach

Calculations are based on two well-established scenarios for transport development in Sweden. Changes per tonne-kilometre are modelled for ten product groups with considerations taken to their transport networks. Socio-economic effects are analysed using the net present value rating method over a 40-year period.

Findings

The study shows the increase in demand for transport and the modal shift, from rail and sea to road, in terms of tonne-kilometres, vehicle-kilometres and CO2 emissions for three implementation strategies of HCVs in two scenarios. All implementation strategies show a positive social net-benefit with the introduction of HCVs.

Research limitations/implications

The results reveal potential benefits to the implementation of HCVs. The results are limited by possible over/under-estimations of effects considered in the calculations, due to uncertainties and assumptions.

Practical implications

The results highlight expected levels of modal shift and induced transport for different HCV implementation strategies and how they depend on transport and climate policies and the expected growth of tonne-kilometres.

Originality/value

The calculations consider socio-economic effects, particularly from increased CO2 emissions due to modal shift and induced traffic, which is lacking in previous studies. To balance conflicting economic and environmental goals, the findings indicate that the implementation of HCVs could be accompanied by other policy measures. The findings are based on the Swedish context, but the model can be adapted to other countries or regions and to study other freight transport reforms.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Fredrik Pettersson and Jamil Khan

There is a heavy dependence on cars for people living in rural areas and small towns. The countryside has so far been left out of the transition to carbon-free transport…

Abstract

There is a heavy dependence on cars for people living in rural areas and small towns. The countryside has so far been left out of the transition to carbon-free transport, and public transport shares are low in rural areas. New information and communication technology (ICT) solutions and autonomous vehicles (AVs) have the potential to improve the conditions for public transport in rural areas, as they may increase efficiency and reduce costs. Still, these technological novelties are rarely tested in rural settings and policy focus and pilot tests have occurred almost exclusively in cities. The aim of this chapter is to explore the conditions and challenges for public transport in rural areas through ICT and AVs. The authors will discuss how policy focus needs to change to increase attention to rural areas and give suggestions on concrete policy measures that can be used. In the chapter, the authors draw empirically on results from two research projects in Sweden about the conditions for public transport in rural areas and ongoing tests with new ICT solutions.

Details

Shaping Smart Mobility Futures: Governance and Policy Instruments in times of Sustainability Transitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-651-1

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Abstract

Details

Shaping Smart Mobility Futures: Governance and Policy Instruments in times of Sustainability Transitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-651-1

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2019

S.U. Khan, Sabir Ali Shehzad and N. Ali

An increment in energy efficiency by employing nanoparticles is a hot topic of research in present era due to its abundant implications in modern engineering and…

Abstract

Purpose

An increment in energy efficiency by employing nanoparticles is a hot topic of research in present era due to its abundant implications in modern engineering and technological processes. Therefore, the current research analysis reported the viscoelastic nanofluid flow over porous oscillatory moving sheet in the presence of microorganisms. A rate-type fluid namely Maxwell fluid is employed with the addition of nanoparticles. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

First, acceptable dimensionless variables are defined to convert the system of dimensional form into the system of dimensionless forms. Later on, the self-similar solution of the boundary value problem is computed by using the homotopy analysis method. The obtained results of velocity, temperature, mass concentration and motile microorganism density profiles are interpreted through physical background.

Findings

The presence of both thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters also improve the thermophysical features of non-Newtonian nanoparticles. It is also pointed out that the presence of porous medium and magnetic force enhances the nanoparticles concentration. Moreover, a weaker distribution of gyrotactic microorganism has been depicted with Peclet number and bioconvection Lewis parameter.

Originality/value

No such article exists in the literature yet.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2020

Claus Hedegaard Sørensen and Alexander Paulsson

In this chapter, the authors will summarise the entire book and look ahead. The aim of this book has been to take the calls for governance of smart mobility one step…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors will summarise the entire book and look ahead. The aim of this book has been to take the calls for governance of smart mobility one step further by analysing and discussing current and future policy instruments to govern smart mobility. The task has been carried out by discussing the why, how and what of policy instruments. So far, the policy instruments governing smart mobility to a large extent are focussed on understanding this new field of mobility, establishing relations and roles between companies and authorities, and making the field governable. What is lacking in this equation are policy instruments that establish the population as citizens with rights, voices and roles. In order to align the smart mobility transition and the transition towards a sustainable society, the authors consider the development of deliberative citizen participation an important initiative and the authors suggest it as an important field for future research.

Details

Shaping Smart Mobility Futures: Governance and Policy Instruments in times of Sustainability Transitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-651-1

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Atul Babbar, Vivek Jain and Dheeraj Gupta

In present research work, the effects of rotational speed, feed rate and vibration amplitude have been investigated during novel method of ultrasonic-assisted bone…

Abstract

Purpose

In present research work, the effects of rotational speed, feed rate and vibration amplitude have been investigated during novel method of ultrasonic-assisted bone grinding. During dissection of tumors, firstly a bone flap is removed near the target region to create passage for grinding burr. During abrasion, heat is produced, which sometimes increases the temperature to unsafe levels. So, efforts have been made to limit the temperature below the threshold levels of osteonecrosis during bone grinding.

Design/methodology/approach

The temperature produced during osteotomy has been measured using infrared thermography camera during the implementation of L18 Taguchi orthogonal array design. Subsequently, main effect plots and contour plots have been presented to analyze and visualize the effect of grinding parameters on temperature rise during bone grinding. Furthermore, the process parameters have been optimized for optimum results for response characteristics using Taguchi SN ratio-based optimization methodology. For multiobjective optimization, the process parameters are further optimized using grey relational analysis.

Findings

It is revealed that all three process parameters substantially affect the response characteristics. The proposed optimization methodology is successfully applied on the experimental findings and the optimum results for change in temperature are found to be rotational speed = 3,000 rpm, feed rate = 20 mm/min, amplitude = 10 µm and for standard deviation are 5,000 rpm, 60 mm/min, 10 µm.

Research limitations/implications

The present research findings cannot be generalized, and researchers are encouraged to further investigate the proposed rotary ultrasonic-assisted bone grinding at higher rotational speed up to 60k rpm on the skull bone.

Originality/value

The research on osteotomy is still at its initial phase, and continuous research is carried out for making patients’ life comfortable. In this direction, the authors have proposed a novel osteotomy method to limit the temperature below the threshold limit of osteonecrosis. The outcomes of the present study will be beneficial for the neurosurgeons working in this field.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Shuming Bai and Kai S. Koong

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings and implications associated with the millions of financial and other fraud complaints that are reported to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings and implications associated with the millions of financial and other fraud complaints that are reported to the Federal Trade Commission and published in the Consumer Sentinel Network Data Book each year since 2002. Based on the three dimensions, namely, the number of complaints, growth rates and geographic locations of those crimes, this study found similar as well as unique trends that are new and are critical for addressing the rise of cybercrimes in the USA. The trends and patterns identified may also have implications for addressing cybercrimes in other parts of the world.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is a cross-sectional time-series study that covers frauds and cybercrimes in the USA from 2002 to 2015. The observed cases included the number of total complaints, complaints categories and payment amount or loss incurred both at the national and state levels. First, aggregate fraud totals, categories, payments and payment methods were analyzed and ranked. Second, state data for fraud categories, payments and filing rate per capita were organized into panel data for analysis, comparison and ranking. This cross-sectional and longitudinal approach of the different dimensions of financial and other frauds generate new rankings and more robust results.

Findings

The key findings are related to the long-term occurrences and trends of financial and online frauds in the USA. While some general trends are consistent with prior studies, the cross-sectional and longitudinal panel analysis produced some unique results. States that reported the most complaints do not necessarily rank high when examined with their growth per capital or their rates of growth. Their rankings could change dramatically due to other factors. In addition, eight of the top ten crime categories are the same both at the national and state levels, indicating that law enforcement could target the same crime categories.

Originality/value

The panel data analysis is new (first attempt at using this technique on the data set) and robust because it allows cross-sectional and longitudinally analysis of the various financial and online fraud crimes, in aggregate and by state, for a more comprehensive and comparative examination of the fraud behavioral trends. This research can be viewed as an improvement over earlier studies because the panel analysis identifies what fraud trends, scam types and payment amount exist on the national and state levels. The rate of fraud growth in the respective states provides a better understanding about future development of this problem.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Kai S. Koong, Lai C. Liu, Hong Qin and Tingting Ying

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings and lessons that were learned from the many cases of internet fraud complaints that are gathered by the Federal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings and lessons that were learned from the many cases of internet fraud complaints that are gathered by the Federal Trade Commission in the USA. The implications that are contained in the behavior of the complaints and trends identified are critical for addressing all types of online criminal activities in the increasing world of cybercrimes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this paper are extracted from the Consumer Sentinel Network Data Handbook covering a period of 13 years. Using the raw data, the occurrences were plotted and trends (number of cycles, time between cycles, and leading state and lagging states) were identified. Descriptive statistics covering the 13 years were examined and discussed. Using 20002 as the base year, the rate of growth of each of the states were ranked annually and were tested for stability and predictability using non-parametric approaches.

Findings

The key findings are indigenous to the occurrences of online fraud complaints in the USA. However, as the leading nation with the best database on fraud complaints, the findings are mission critical to fraud prevention across the globe. Specifically, this study found that since 2002, there have been four distinct cycles. Each cycle is clearly noticeable because there is a rapid growth in the number of crime complaints in the beginning half of the period followed by a slowing down period. However, the speed of change from one cycle to the next is steeper and the time gap is faster. While it is true that from the perspective of all the 50 states, the ranks appear to change every year and thus are not stable. However, the majority of the changes are relatively small so their relative positions by rank are still predictable.

Originality/value

The paper extends existing understanding of online fraud occurrences in the USA. The findings are timely and based on longitudinal data that span over a decade. The four new cycles identified are critical to the body of knowledge. The observed change in time from one cycle to another and its changes from a mathematic to a geometric one are also new. The findings are invaluable to persons working in law enforcement related occupations (auditors, lawyers, forensic experts, among others) and who must deal with the increasing problem of online fraud and cybercrimes.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2020

Surajit Bag and Jan Harm Christiaan Pretorius

The digital revolution has brought many challenges and opportunities for the manufacturing firms. The impact of Industry 4.0 technology adoption on sustainable…

Abstract

Purpose

The digital revolution has brought many challenges and opportunities for the manufacturing firms. The impact of Industry 4.0 technology adoption on sustainable manufacturing and circular economy has been under-researched. This paper aims to review the latest articles in the area of Industry 4.0, sustainable manufacturing and circular economy and further developed a research framework showing key paths.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research is performed in two stages. In the first stage, a review of the extant literature is performed to identify the barriers, drivers, challenges and opportunities. In the second stage, a research framework is proposed to integrate Industry 4.0 technology (big data analytics powered artificial intelligence) adoption, sustainable manufacturing and circular economy capabilities.

Findings

This research extends the knowledge base by providing a detailed review of Industry 4.0, sustainable manufacturing, and circular economy and proposes a research framework by integrating these three contemporary concepts in the context of supply chain management. Through an exploration of this integrative research framework, the authors propose a future research agenda and seven research propositions.

Research limitations/implications

It is important to understand the interplay between institutional pressures, tangible resources and human skills for Industry 4.0 technology (big data analytics powered artificial intelligence) adoption. Industry 4.0 technology (big data analytics powered artificial intelligence) adoption can positively influence sustainable manufacturing and circular economy capabilities. Managers must also put more attention to sustainable manufacturing to develop circular economic capabilities.

Social implications

Factory workers and the local communities generally suffer from various adverse effects resulting from the traditional manufacturing process. The quality of the environment is deteriorating to such an extent that people even staying miles away from the factory are also affected due to environmental pollution that is generated from factory operations. Hence, sustainable manufacturing is the only choice left to manufacturers that can help in the transition to a circular economy. The research framework can help firms to enhance circular economy capabilities.

Originality/value

This review paper contains the most updated work on Industry 4.0, sustainable manufacturing and circular economy. It also proposes a research framework to integrate these three concepts.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

T. Hayat, S.A. Shehzad and A. Alsaedi

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the three-dimensional flow of Maxwell fluid with variable thermal conductivity in presence of heat source/sink.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the three-dimensional flow of Maxwell fluid with variable thermal conductivity in presence of heat source/sink.

Design/methodology/approach

Similarity transformations are utilized to reduce the nonlinear partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The governing nonlinear problems are solved by homotopy analysis method.

Findings

The paper found that the velocities decrease while temperature increases for higher Hartman number. It is also seen that the thermal boundary layer thickness and temperature are increased with an increase in variable thermal conductivity parameter and heat source/sink parameter.

Practical implications

Heat transfer analysis with heat source/sink has pivotal role in many industrial applications like cooling of an infinite metallic plate in a cooling bath, drawing of plastic films, nuclear plants, gas turbines, various propulsion devices for missiles, space vehicles and processes occurring at high temperatures.

Originality/value

This study discusses the magnetohydrodynamic three-dimensional flow of Maxwell fluid with variable thermal conductivity and heat source/sink. No such analysis exists in the literature yet.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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