I. INTRODUCTION This study attempts to extend and expand previous research conducted by the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde on the adoption and diffusion of…
Corporate governance has experienced numerous changes in chime with the exigencies of the time during which it has been introduced or the context in which it has been…
Corporate governance has experienced numerous changes in chime with the exigencies of the time during which it has been introduced or the context in which it has been practiced. Its gestation can be divided into three stages of development namely the traditional governance, the current transitional governance, and the upcoming sustainable governance. Traditional governance refers to the period hitherto the industrial revolution when corporations have not yet been formed, in today’s sense, but the governance structures were already in place in the existing entities at the time. Transitional governance refers to a period between the industrial revolution and the information age when corporations started to rise as a new economic entity. Reviewing the dominant corporate governance models are integral to understanding the transitional era. At the end of the transitional governance era, a transmogrification in corporate governance is underway to prepare itself for the coming age of sustainability. Sustainable governance integrates the principles of systems thinking and appreciates the complexity of decision-making environment, contrary to its former iterations that welcomed oversimplification of interactive messes (systems of problems). The objective of this chapter is to review corporate governance developmental transition toward sustainable governance and its role in the age of sustainability.
The mass media are cultural pipelines through which flow hours of entertainment and information. They represent a part of our culture which critics decry and media specialists praise. They are difficult, if not impossible, to ignore. Television (free, cable, or pay) is the subject of attention of three‐year‐olds and Ph.D. candidates alike. Newspapers are perused daily by all classes and conditions of people and their content, ownership patterns, and circulation statistics are studied in journalism classes, high schools, and by worried editors and publishers. Films entertained children in Nickelodeons, raised the spirits of millions during World War II, and now are the subject of so much analysis that words like ‘pan,’ ‘take,’ and ‘track’ have taken on new meaning in the vocabulary of most ordinary citizens.
The great difficulties which attach to the fixing of legal standards of composition for food products have now to be grappled with by the Departmental Committee appointed by the Board of Agriculture to consider and determine what regulations should be made by the Board, under Section 4 of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1899, with respect to the composition of butter. As we predicted in regard to the labours of the Milk and Cream Standards Committee, so we predict now that the Butter Committee will be unable to do more than to recommend standards and limits, which, while they will make for the protection of the public against the sale of grossly adulterated articles, will certainly not in any way insure the sale of butter of really satisfactory, or even of fair, composition. Standards and limits established by law for the purposes of the administration of criminal Acts of Parliament must of necessity be such as to legalise the sale of products of a most inferior character, to which the term “genuine” may still by law be applied as well as to legalise the sale of adulterated and sophisticated products so prepared as to come within the four corners of the law. It is, of course, an obvious necessity that official standards and limits should be established, and the Board of Agriculture are to be congratulated upon the manner in which they are endeavouring to deal with these extremely knotty problems; but it is important that misconception on the part of the public and the trade with respect to the effect of the regulations to be made should be as far as possible prevented. All that can be hoped for is that the conclusions at which the Committee may find themselves compelled to arrive will not be such as to place too high and too obvious a premium upon the sale of those inferior and scientifically‐adulterated products which are placed in such enormous quantities on the food market.
The improvement of performance appraisal systems is a matter of sharing a social definition of performance appraisal that is congruent with the original intent decided by the organisation. The management development professional can aid the process by being educated about appraisal systems, analysing the potential benefits to the organisation, and accepting that all appraisers need training. To help performance appraisal reach its fullest potential, management development professionals need to be political strategists, appraisal system experts, trainers, salespeople and catalysts, in combination.
The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the impact of family ownership on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of firms in an emerging market and the contingencies under…
The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the impact of family ownership on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of firms in an emerging market and the contingencies under which it is likely to be affected.
The paper adopted a panel data multiple regression using ordinary least square methodology on a sample of 51,972 observations belonging to 12,250 firms from India.
The study finds that family businesses have higher EO than non-family firms. However, it is likely to be affected during institutional transition due to environmental uncertainty. Furthermore, during institutional transition, there will be differences in the EO of family business groups and stand-alone family firms due to the former’s ubiquitous network-level resource advantages.
This paper contributes to the literature on family business by reconciling the positive and negative views on the effect of family ownership on EO by arguing that the risk-taking behavior of family firms is contingent on the environmental conditions and the resource position of the firm.
This study will enable managers and other stakeholders to predict the entrepreneurial attitude of family-owned firms during environmentally stable as well as turbulent times.
This study highlights the implication of institutional transition through reforms on a vital part of the economy. Policy makers have to be sensitive to repercussions on family business due to environmental turbulence.
This is one of the first papers that investigate the influence of institutional transition and the resource position of Indian family firms on their EO.
Uncertainty and unpredictability in the lives and livelihoods of informal microentrepreneurs in Quito, Ecuador, increase their vulnerability and make the challenges of…
Uncertainty and unpredictability in the lives and livelihoods of informal microentrepreneurs in Quito, Ecuador, increase their vulnerability and make the challenges of life at the social and economic margins of society more difficult to overcome. Through their small informal microenterprises, they work to maintain their everyday survival and sustain their hopes for a better future. Some turn to microfinance to support their microenterprises. Worldwide, microfinance is promoted as a powerful instrument for social and cultural change, creating a narrative of microfinance that contains promises of transformative effects. Over 16 months of research, interviews with 120 informal sector microentrepreneurs revealed these promises and the limitations of microfinance in their lives and the individualization of social problems present within the narrative of microfinance. The strength and flexibility of this narrative of microfinance has been built, interpreted, and reinterpreted in ways that allows it to be applied, and accepted, in various global social and political contexts. Informal microenterprises and microfinance are ways that people cope with economic uncertainty and social instability in Quito. Although people turn to microfinance in an effort to cope with their vulnerability, microfinance can increase their everyday vulnerabilities and place the responsibility for overcoming social problems upon the individuals who suffer them the most. Microfinance, therefore, becomes well-intentioned debt, creating new subjects and selfhoods that shift the social problems of poverty and inequality to individual problems that should be overcome by self-reliance.
This article explores a complex aspect of Japanese industrial organization—the Japanese Corporate Grouping (JCG) commonly known as keiretsu or kigyo shudan. They are a…
This article explores a complex aspect of Japanese industrial organization—the Japanese Corporate Grouping (JCG) commonly known as keiretsu or kigyo shudan. They are a blend of political‐financial, strategically‐coordinated, bank‐related, industrially‐linked, intermarket relationships which provide member companies with the support to vigorously pursue international market opportunities. The article draws on these relational dimensions to develop a framework for exploring the critical implications of the JCG for organization theory and international business strategy. To remain competitive, international managers must meet many strategic challenges posed by Group‐Form organizations.
Purpose – This chapter traces the creation of a market for strategy by management consulting firms during the second half of the twentieth century in order to demonstrate…
Purpose – This chapter traces the creation of a market for strategy by management consulting firms during the second half of the twentieth century in order to demonstrate their impact in shaping debates in the subject and demand for their services by corporate executives.
Design/methodology/approach – Using historical analysis, the chapter draws on institutional theory, including institutional isomorphism. It uses both primary and secondary data from the leading consulting firms to describe how consultants shifted from offering advice on organizational structure to corporate strategy and eventually to corporate legitimacy as a result of the changing economic and regulatory environment of the time.
Findings/originality/value – This study provides a historical context for the emergence of corporate and competitive strategy as an institutional practice in both the United States and around the world, and provides insights into how important this history can be in understanding the debates among consultants and academics during strategy's emergence as an academic subject and practical application.