The potential application of data mining techniques in the extraction of information from property data sets is discussed. Particular interest is focused upon neural…
The potential application of data mining techniques in the extraction of information from property data sets is discussed. Particular interest is focused upon neural networks in the valuation of residential property with an evaluation of their ability to predict. Model testing infers a wide variation in the range of outputs with best results for stratified market subsets, using postal code as a locational delimiter. The paper questions whether predicted outcomes are within the range of valuation acceptability and examines issues relating to potential biasing and repeatability of results.
The purpose of this paper is to estimate long‐run elasticities for housing prices in Tehran's (capital of Iran) 20 different zones relative to several explanatory…
The purpose of this paper is to estimate long‐run elasticities for housing prices in Tehran's (capital of Iran) 20 different zones relative to several explanatory variables available for use such as land price, total substructure area, material price, etc. Moreover, another goal of this paper is to propose a new approach to deal with problems which arise due to a lack of proper data.
The data set is gathered from “The Municipality of Tehran” and “The Central Bank of Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI)”. One‐way fixed effects and one‐way random effects approaches (which are panel data approaches) are applied to model housing price forecasting function in Tehran's 20 different zones. Results are compared with ordinary least squares approach which is a common approach in this field. Finally, outcomes of the preferred approach are discussed and analyzed with regard to the economic point of view.
Results show that one‐way fixed effects approach provides more accurate forecasts and can be considered as a suitable tool to deal with housing price forecasting problems in environments which are: uncertain, complex, and faced with a lack of proper data. Moreover, it is found that land price is the most effective factor that has impact on total housing cost in Tehran, i.e. the main portion of house prices in Tehran is affected by land price, so appropriate policies have to be made by the government to control fluctuations of this factor.
The proposed approach will supply policy makers with improved estimations with decreased errors in uncertain and complex environments which are faced with a lack of proper data, and it extracts valuable information which enables policy makers for handling non‐linearity, complexity, as well as uncertainty that may exist in actual data sets with respect to housing price forecasting. Moreover, the proposed approach can be applied to similar housing price case studies to obtain more accurate and more reliable outcomes.
Applying panel data approach for estimation of housing prices is relatively new in the field of housing economics. Moreover, this is the first study which employs panel data approach for analyzing the housing market in Tehran.
The reasons for the development of explicit methods of appraisal, in general, are outlined and examples given. The acceptability of a discounted cash flow (DCF) approach…
The reasons for the development of explicit methods of appraisal, in general, are outlined and examples given. The acceptability of a discounted cash flow (DCF) approach for appraising contaminated land is considered and the knowledge requirements are described. The principles for such a model are examined and a suggested framework put forward reflecting the knowledge and expertise required. The argument is made that only an explicit DCF approach is logical and defensible. Concludes that such an approach is inevitable as clients demand to know what has been taken into consideration, and how this has been accounted for, in the appraisal of contaminated land.
Looks at the sports industry and addresses the current situation for authors seeking to publish in the area of sports marketing. Sports currently represents the eleventh…
Looks at the sports industry and addresses the current situation for authors seeking to publish in the area of sports marketing. Sports currently represents the eleventh largest industry in the USA. Despite this, there are few mainstream marketing journals willing to publish manuscripts on sports marketing. In an effort to circumvent this problem, some sports marketing authors have “disguised” their research under the guise of “servicescapes” or leisure services. Looks at the topical content of the leading outlet for sports marketing manuscripts, Sport Marketing Quarterly. The author classifies the articles into 18 categories. Sponsorship is the most frequent topic for sport marketing papers, followed by general research and research on fans, spectators, and participants. Provides an extensive bibliography of sport‐marketing articles published in academic journals. While a few of these are in marketing journals, the vast majority are published “out of field”.
President Bill Clinton has had many opponents and enemies, most of whom come from the political right wing. Clinton supporters contend that these opponents, throughout the…
President Bill Clinton has had many opponents and enemies, most of whom come from the political right wing. Clinton supporters contend that these opponents, throughout the Clinton presidency, systematically have sought to undermine this president with the goal of bringing down his presidency and running him out of office; and that they have sought non‐electoral means to remove him from office, including Travelgate, the death of Deputy White House Counsel Vincent Foster, the Filegate controversy, and the Monica Lewinsky matter. This bibliography identifies these and other means by presenting citations about these individuals and organizations that have opposed Clinton. The bibliography is divided into five sections: General; “The conspiracy stream of conspiracy commerce”, a White House‐produced “report” presenting its view of a right‐wing conspiracy against the Clinton presidency; Funding; Conservative organizations; and Publishing/media. Many of the annotations note the links among these key players.
Hybrid systems as the next generation of intelligent applications within the field of mass appraisal and valuation are investigated. Motivated by the obvious limitations…
Hybrid systems as the next generation of intelligent applications within the field of mass appraisal and valuation are investigated. Motivated by the obvious limitations of paradigms that are being used in isolation or as stand‐alone techniques such as multiple regression analysis, artificial neural networks and expert systems. Clearly, there are distinct advantages in integrating two or more information processing systems that would address some of the discrete problems of individual techniques. Examines first, the strategic development of mass appraisal approaches which have traditionally been based on “stand‐alone” techniques; second, the potential application of an intelligent hybrid system. Highlights possible solutions by investigating various hybrid systems that may be developed incorporating a nearest neighbour algorithm (k‐NN). The enhancements are aimed at two major deficiencies in traditional distance metrics; user dependence for attribute weights and biases in the distance metric towards matching categorical variables in the retrieval of neighbours. Solutions include statistical techniques: mean, coefficient of variation and significant mean. Data mining paradigms based on a loosely coupled neural network or alternatively a tight coupling with genetic algorithms are used to discover attribute weights. The hybrid architectures developed are applied to a property data set and their performance measured based on their predictive value as well as perspicuity. Concludes by considering the application and the relevance of these techniques within the field of computer assisted mass appraisal.
In recent decades, it has become clear that the major economic, political, and social problems in the world require contemporary development research to examine…
In recent decades, it has become clear that the major economic, political, and social problems in the world require contemporary development research to examine intersections of race and class in the global economy. Theorists in the Black Radical Tradition (BRT) were the first to develop and advance a powerful research agenda that integrated race–class analyses of capitalist development. However, over time, progressive waves of research streams in development studies have successively stripped these concepts from their analyses. Post-1950s, class analyses of development overlapped with some important features of the BRT, but removed race. Post-1990s, ethnicity-based analyses of development excised both race and class. In this chapter, I discuss what we learn about capitalist development using the integrated race–class analyses of the BRT, and how jettisoning these concepts weakens our understanding of the political economy of development. To remedy our current knowledge gaps, I call for applying insights of the BRT to our analyses of the development trajectories of nations.
The canned fruit and canned vegetable industry of Canada is of recent but rapid growth. The recently issued Report by the Department of Trade and Commerce on the industry states that it supplies nearly all the Canadian home requirements and at the present time there is in addition a small export trade in canned pears and other canned fruits—not specified—which are sent almost exclusively to the United Kingdom.