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In a U.S. invested enterprise in China, the receptivity of Chinese employees to a participative work environment was examined. Structural equation analysis indicated…
In a U.S. invested enterprise in China, the receptivity of Chinese employees to a participative work environment was examined. Structural equation analysis indicated support for a model in which job satisfaction mediates the relationships between elements of a participative work environment (i.e., tasks performed, the relationships individuals had with their work groups, and the nature of the decision making processes) and employee willingness to cooperate with co‐workers and intention to quit. Task interdependence also had a direct relationship with willingness to cooperate.
The study supports the existence of a relationship between components of CEO compensation and firm performance. On average, the sampled firms can be characterized as…
The study supports the existence of a relationship between components of CEO compensation and firm performance. On average, the sampled firms can be characterized as having high levels of CEO cash compensation and high ROE, as well as high levels of stock option values and high market returns. These between‐firm effects suggest the existence of labor market norms linking executive compensation with firm performance. CEO cash compensation was also strongly influenced by CEO age and firm size.
This study tested the hypothesis of collectivist orientation as a predictor of affective organizational commitment. Data from 510 employees working in two organizations in…
This study tested the hypothesis of collectivist orientation as a predictor of affective organizational commitment. Data from 510 employees working in two organizations in China supported the hypothesis, that is, collectivist orientation is a significant predictor of affective organizational commitment when employees' specific organization, age, sex, organizational tenure, educational level, and pay satisfaction are controlled.
Traditional employment practices since the Second World War had usually ensured job security for a company’s workforce. However, the increasingly competitive environment…
Traditional employment practices since the Second World War had usually ensured job security for a company’s workforce. However, the increasingly competitive environment and the restructuring of companies in the 1980s and 1990s have made this practice impossible to continue; therefore, layoffs have become a fact of life for employees in an increasing number of industries. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes in two employment environments, one in which temporary workers were used to shield permanent employees from layoffs and another in which layoff decisions were made without regard to permanent or temporary status. Specifically, examination was made of the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS), organizational commitment, and intention to quit, and the relative levels of these variables across two environments and the two classes of workers. It was found that, as expected, the relationships among the commitment variables and intention to quit were similar within both environments. Also, as expected, levels of commitment in the “shield” environment were higher than in the “layoff” environment; and POS was higher among temporary employees in the “shield” environment than among permanent workers in the “layoff” environment. A particularly interesting finding was that, in the “layoff” environment, POS among temporary workers was higher than among permanent workers.
The President of the Board of Agriculture has introduced in the House of Commons his long‐promised Bill for preventing the sale of butter containing large amounts of water, and the proposed measure appears to have been received with general approval on both sides of the House.
Over the last several years, there has been a significant increase worldwide in the implementation of environmental management systems (EMS). Yet, few studies have…
Over the last several years, there has been a significant increase worldwide in the implementation of environmental management systems (EMS). Yet, few studies have provided feedback on managerial views of key components and performance of these systems. The purpose of this paper is to examine variations in perceptions of a number of environmental and human resource constructs that are operationalized and measured in the field at Mexican maquiladoras. Differences between organizations with a certified EMS, informal EMS, and no EMS are examined.
A survey was administered to 220 manufacturing organizations in Mexico. The survey instrument was self‐report format with attitudinal variables. Items were adopted from previously published scales. A global hypothesis was proposed in order to test the difference between groups across multiple dependent variables. A MANCOVA and post hoc MANOVA were used to simultaneously evaluate the difference among the multiple metric dependent variables in this study.
The paper found that significant facility differences existed for all environmental management practices and perceived environmental performance across all levels of EMS, with certified EMS facilities being the highest, informal EMS facilities being second and facilities with no EMS being lowest.
This study contributes to both theory and practice. First, it extends the literature related to EMS and environmental and human resource constructs. Second, it tests the role of EMS certification in firm environmental management. Third, the study is the first to compare EMS differences among firms in the Mexican manufacturing sector. Finally, the study has relevant implications for practitioners.
A theoretical analysis evidences the existence of multiple patterns of collective leadership and serves as foundation for the proposal of a two-dimensional model of…
A theoretical analysis evidences the existence of multiple patterns of collective leadership and serves as foundation for the proposal of a two-dimensional model of collective leadership, which evaluates leadership sharedness (the extent to which leadership roles are shared by group members), and leadership distribution (the extent to which different leadership roles are permanently assigned to group members). The relationship between these dimensions and committee effectiveness is further tested.
A social networks methodology is used with a sample of 28 committees. Two complementary network properties (centralization and density) are used to operationalize leadership sharedness and a new measure is developed to operationalize leadership distribution. Stepwise regressions test the relation between collective leadership dimensions and performance.
The model proposed advances the understanding of collective leadership’s internal dynamics and facilitates empirical comparisons of the effectiveness of various forms of collective leadership. The highest committee performance was found in groups where members contribute equally to charismatic and supportive leadership but only when these equal contributions were high. In collective directive and participative leadership, however, equality of contribution was associated to higher performance independently on the strength of members’ contributions. No relationship was found between the distribution of leadership roles among group members and committee performance.
A small sample size may have reduced hypothesis testing power. The intraclass corrections (ICC(2)) were lower than recommended. Finally, results cannot be extrapolated beyond committees, which have very unique characteristics due to their low typical interaction.
Organizations can improve committee performance by ensuring high and equal participation of members in their group’s leadership through training and selection. Enhancing participation of all members in leadership requires special attention to women and members of minorities, that are typically attributed less leadership influence and whose commitment to the group may be hurt by lack of involvement.
The two-dimensional model proposed goes beyond previously published models in exploring several aspects of collective leadership internal dynamics by advancing the understanding how different aspects of collective leadership patterns affect group performance.
A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…
A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.
In this article we consider how cultural resources rooted in religion help to constitute and animate people working in industrialized societies across both religious and…
In this article we consider how cultural resources rooted in religion help to constitute and animate people working in industrialized societies across both religious and nonreligious domains. We argue that redemptive self-narratives figure prominently in the symbolic constructions people attach to their experiences across the many domains of human experience; such redemptive narratives not only can shape their identities and sense of life purpose, they inform their practices and choices and animate their capacity for action. To consider how redemptive self-narratives can provide a basis for agency in organizations, we analyze and compare the career narratives of a retired Episcopal Bishop and a celebrated CEO.