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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

James U. McNeal, Neil C. Herndon and Chyon‐Hwa Yeh

Reports on two studies conducted in Hong Kong, one in 1989, the other in 1994, to see if children’s socialization as consumers has changed in the intervening years…

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Abstract

Reports on two studies conducted in Hong Kong, one in 1989, the other in 1994, to see if children’s socialization as consumers has changed in the intervening years. Formulates hypotheses, based on the earlier research, that children will receive spending money by the time they are four, that the amount will increase as they get older, children will spend money by the age of four, they will also save money, older children will visit more shops than younger children, and children will go shopping without parents by the age of four. Outlines the research methodology used – 318 questionnaires used for analysis, composition of the sample of respondents, demographics – and records how analysis of variance was used to make comparisons with data from the earlier study. Considers income, spending and saving attitudes in children, as well as how they spend and what they buy. Finds that, in 1994 (compared to 1989) children aged 6, 9, 10, 11 and 12 receive more money; 4, 7 and 10 year olds spend a higher percent of their income, saving has decreased for 4, 7 and 10 year olds, children’s real income has doubled since 1989, independent shopping trips seem to have been postponed until the child is 6 but co‐shopping with parents has increased for all ages; most shopping trips without parents focused on food stores and street vendors that were easily accessible from home, but purchasing behaviour has not changed significantly. Indicates that Hong Kong children are pursuing a western (US) model of spending income, rather than the Chinese model of saving, and that children are undergoing consumer socialization and consumer education – as evidenced by the single fact that in 1994 $161.8 million was spent in Hong Kong by children aged 4‐12.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/03090569010002861. When citing…

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Abstract

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/03090569010002861. When citing the article, please cite: James U. McNeal, Chyon-Hwa Yeh, (1990), “Taiwanese Children as Consumers”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 24 Iss: 10, pp. 32 - 43.

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Asia Pacific International Journal of Marketing, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7517

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Kara Chuen and James U. McNeal

Explores the attitudes to TV advertising of Chinese children, the “little emperors/empresses“ who now have enormous influence on the market, largely as a result of the…

Abstract

Explores the attitudes to TV advertising of Chinese children, the “little emperors/empresses“ who now have enormous influence on the market, largely as a result of the one‐child policy that China adopted in 1979; like children elsewhere, they appear to pay less attention to commercials as they get older and become more sceptical about their truthfulness. Outlines the methodology used in the research, differences between Hong Kong and mainland children, children’s favourite commercials, and their views of advertised versus non‐advertised brands. Moves on to regulation of children’s advertising: unlike many Western countries, there is a lack of specific regulation of TV advertising to children, and the rapid though uneven growth of TV advertising in China has led to irresponsible practices.

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Young Consumers, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1993

James U. McNeal, Vish R. Viswanathan and Chyon‐Hwa Yeh

A new research program has been established that determines the nature and extent of consumer socialization of children throughout the industrialized world. The first…

Abstract

A new research program has been established that determines the nature and extent of consumer socialization of children throughout the industrialized world. The first three nations' children to be studied were those in Hong Kong, New Zealand, and Taiwan. This paper describes this program, the results of the three consumer socialization studies, and provides cross‐comparisons among the three nations and the United States.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2002

Kara Chan, James U. McNeal and Fanny Chan

Examines how much attention urban mainland Chinese children pay to television commercials, their response to different types of commercials, and their perceptions of the…

Abstract

Examines how much attention urban mainland Chinese children pay to television commercials, their response to different types of commercials, and their perceptions of the quality of advertised and non‐advertised brands. Classifies the types of commercials seen as funny, animated, public service, celebrity endorsements, and those that increase knowledge, and relates these types to the four age groups of the children studied. Concludes that children pay a decreasing amount of attention to commercials as they get older, and that the link between liking a commercial and impulse buying of its product also lessens; confidence in advertised brands does not increase with age, but confidence in non‐advertised brands decreases with age.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

James U. McNeal and Chyon‐Hwa Yeh

Explores the consumer behaviour patterns of urban Chinese children as a primary and an influence market. Examines, as primary customers, their income, spending and saving…

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Abstract

Explores the consumer behaviour patterns of urban Chinese children as a primary and an influence market. Examines, as primary customers, their income, spending and saving pattern. Finds that they have two different types of income, save over half of it, and spend the rest on snack items, and the largest portion on school‐related items. Analyses their influence on the spending behaviour of their parents and grandparents among 25 product categories and the results reveal that they influence around two‐thirds of parents' purchases. Also considers role of age and gender on children's consumer behaviour. Discusses some marketing implications.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

James U. McNeal and Hongxia Zhang

China's population of children is the largest in the world. It is the largest in terms of numbers in spite of its limitation of one child per family. Soon it will be the…

Abstract

China's population of children is the largest in the world. It is the largest in terms of numbers in spite of its limitation of one child per family. Soon it will be the largest children's market in terms of economic clout. Since marketers tend to use a simple fortnula for determining market potential of a geography, that is, People X Dollars = Markets, these facts are causing China's children to receive increasing attention from Western marketers. Brands such as Lego, Barbie, Nestle, M&M, Pepsi, Kraft, Crayola, Johnson & Johnson, Nike, and McDonald's are in head‐to‐head competition with many of China's major producers and retailers for a share of this market. Consequently, information about the children's market in China is needed.

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International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6676

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

James U. McNeal and Mindy F. Ji

The research reported here was a first attempt to determine where Chinese children as consumers learn information about new products and their attitudes toward different…

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Abstract

The research reported here was a first attempt to determine where Chinese children as consumers learn information about new products and their attitudes toward different sources of information. Chinese children’s usage of the mass media was also examined, as was the relationship between mass media usage and information sources. The findings show that Chinese children utilize a wide variety of information sources to learn about new products including parents, retail outlets, and the mass media, and surprisingly they consider the newest medium, television, to be the most important of all. The effects of gender, age and family occupation were also considered. Some important marketing implications are suggested.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Leo Yat Ming Sin and Suk‐ching Ho

Looks at consumer research in Greater China including Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Maps out the contributions within this area and guides future research…

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Abstract

Looks at consumer research in Greater China including Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Maps out the contributions within this area and guides future research. Examines the state of the art over the 1979‐97 period, with particular emphasis on the topics that have been researched, the extent of the theory development in the field and the methodologies used in conducting research. Uses content analysis to review 75 relevant articles. Suggests that, while a considerable breadth of topics have been researched, there remains much to be done, there is further room for theoretical development in Chinese consumer behaviour studies; and the methodologies used need improvement and further refinement.

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Kara Chan and James U. McNeal

The current study examines how mainland Chinese parents communicate with their children about consumption and advertising. A survey of 1,665 parents of children aged six…

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Abstract

The current study examines how mainland Chinese parents communicate with their children about consumption and advertising. A survey of 1,665 parents of children aged six to 14 in Beijing, Nanjing and Chengdu was conducted in December 2001 to March 2002. Using Moore and Moschis’s typology of family communication patterns, Chinese parents are classified into four types including laissez‐faire, protective, pluralistic, and consensual parents. Results indicated Chinese parents are classified primarily as consensual in type with both high socio‐ as well as concept‐oriented communication. Family communication patterns differ among parents of different demographic groups as well as among different dyad relationships. Parents with a higher education level and families with a higher household income engaged more frequently in concept‐oriented communication. Pluralistic and consensual parents discussed with children about television commercials more often than laissez‐faire and protective parents. Consensual parents perceived they have a greater influence on children’s attitude toward advertising than laissez‐faire parents. Implication for marketers and advertisers are discussed.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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