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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2017

James Prater, Konstantinos Kirytopoulos and Tony Ma

One of the major challenges for any project is to prepare and develop an achievable baseline schedule and thus set the project up for success, rather than failure. The…

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2939

Abstract

Purpose

One of the major challenges for any project is to prepare and develop an achievable baseline schedule and thus set the project up for success, rather than failure. The purpose of this paper is to explore and investigate research outputs in one of the major causes, optimism bias, to identify problems with developing baseline schedules and analyse mitigation techniques and their effectiveness recommended by research to minimise the impact of this bias.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic quantitative literature review was followed, examining Project Management Journals, documenting the mitigation approaches recommended and then reviewing whether these approaches were validated by research.

Findings

Optimism bias proved to be widely accepted as a major cause of unrealistic scheduling for projects, and there is a common understanding as to what it is and the effects that it has on original baseline schedules. Based upon this review, the most recommended mitigation method is Flyvbjerg’s “Reference class,” which has been developed based upon Kahneman’s “Outside View”. Both of these mitigation techniques are based upon using an independent third party to review the estimate. However, within the papers reviewed, apart from the engineering projects, there has been no experimental and statistically validated research into the effectiveness of this method. The majority of authors who have published on this topic are based in Europe.

Research limitations/implications

The short-listed papers for this review referred mainly to non-engineering projects which included information technology focussed ones. Thus, on one hand, empirical research is needed for engineering projects, while on the other hand, the lack of tangible evidence for the effectiveness of methods related to the alleviation of optimism bias issues calls for greater research into the effectiveness of mitigation techniques for not only engineering projects, but for all projects.

Originality/value

This paper documents the growth within the project management research literature over time on the topic of optimism bias. Specifically, it documents the various methods recommended to mitigate the phenomenon and highlights quantitatively the research undertaken on the subject. Moreover, it introduces paths for further research.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

James Prater, Konstantinos Kirytopoulos and Tony Ma

Despite the advent of sophisticated control methods, there are still significant issues regarding late delivery of information technology projects. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the advent of sophisticated control methods, there are still significant issues regarding late delivery of information technology projects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the common causes of scheduling problems specifically in the information technology projects context.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a quantitative research, the importance of those causes, as well as the underpinning factors driving them, is explored. The causes are ranked according to their relative important index, and exploratory factor analysis is employed to reveal underlying dimensions (factors) of these causes.

Findings

From the analysis, four factors were extracted, namely, “Dataless Newbie,” “Technical Newbie,” “Pragmatic Futurist” and “Optimistic Politician.” These factors explain the different latent conditions that lead to scheduling problems in information technology projects.

Practical implications

The key contribution of this research is that it enlightens the latent conditions underpinning scheduling problems. Also, the evidence provides that schedule development for information technology projects is impacted by the same causes that impact engineering projects, and that applying a number of mitigation techniques widely used within the engineering area, such as reference class, would, no doubt, not only improve information technology schedules but also reduce the political pressures on the project manager.

Originality/value

This research provides a valuable insight into understanding the underlying factors for poor project estimation.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 April 2017

Nathalie Drouin

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316

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Christa S. Bialka and Gina Mancini

The purpose of this paper was to understand what disability-related curriculum (DRC) looked like in the middle school Language Arts classroom. DRC refers to any curricular…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to understand what disability-related curriculum (DRC) looked like in the middle school Language Arts classroom. DRC refers to any curricular material and related pedagogical approach intended to address students’ understanding of disability. The authors drew on the experiences of three in-service middle school Language Arts teachers to understand what disability-related texts they selected, and why they chose to incorporate DRC into their classrooms.

Design/methods/approach

The authors used a qualitative, exploratory multi-case design to understand the what and why underlying three middle school language arts teachers’ use of DRC.

Findings

Findings from this study revealed that teachers leveraged DRC to broaden students’ understanding of diversity, increase empathy and provide exposure to disabilities; teachers gathered resources both online and within existing curriculum; and DRC varied in curricular and pedagogical structure.

Research limitations

The results of this study are exploratory. Although the aforementioned findings are promising, they are limited, due to the small sample size and relatively homogeneous participant demographics. Additional research that incorporates a larger and more diverse sample of participants would serve to broaden, or potentially confirm, the results of this study.

Practical implications

The results of this study provide insight into current practice around DRC while illustrating some of the limitations that teachers may encounter when integrating this practice.

Originality/value

While Language Arts curriculum often explores diversity in relation to race or class, it rarely focuses a lens on disability. This study fills a void in current research by providing empirical data on how educators approach the design and implementation of disability programming in their respective classrooms.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Chrispas Nyombi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of the legal relationship tying workers to employers. It explores how the individual who is categorised as an employee…

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1482

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of the legal relationship tying workers to employers. It explores how the individual who is categorised as an employee is distinguished from a self-employed or independent contractor or a worker. The common law tests for classifying employment status are analysed against a backdrop of emerging research literature. Recommendations for reform are provided, drawing from the work of prominent scholars such as Mark Freedland and Simon Deakin.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews court decisions and examines arguments raised in relation to the binary divide between employed and self-employed. The paper is largely conceptual.

Findings

This paper has shown that divergence between law and realities of employment still puzzle modern law reformers and judges alike. The common law test have proved to be inadequate and new solutions have been recommended. One of the suggest solutions is to import the doctrine of good faith into the tests.

Originality/value

The paper makes recommendations that will further refine and clarify the employment relationship in a bid to create a more inclusive “labour law” capable of protecting a wider range of atypical and vulnerable work relations. This paper will inform managers on the challenges in relation to classification of employment status brought about by the growth in atypical work.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 57 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Tina Taylor Dyches and Mary Anne Prater

Misidentification has two meanings. First, it refers to the identification of a student with a disability when in fact he or she does not have a disability. This is also…

Abstract

Misidentification has two meanings. First, it refers to the identification of a student with a disability when in fact he or she does not have a disability. This is also referred to as a false positive. Misidentification can also mean a student has been identified with the wrong disability (e.g., specific learning disability (SLD) instead of mental retardation (MR)). Disproportionality includes both overrepresentation and underrepresentation. Overrepresentation is identifying more students with disabilities than would be expected based on proportions within a defined population. Conversely, underrepresentation refers to identifying fewer students with disabilities than their prevalence in a population.

Details

Current Issues and Trends in Special Education: Identification, Assessment and Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-669-0

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Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2011

Festus E. Obiakor

It is common knowledge that people like to associate with those who behave, look, speak, and act like themselves. Anyone who does not fall in that norm is traditionally…

Abstract

It is common knowledge that people like to associate with those who behave, look, speak, and act like themselves. Anyone who does not fall in that norm is traditionally perceived, treated, and educated differently (James, 1958; Obiakor, 2008, 2009). Clearly, students with exceptionalities have been discriminated against, ostracized, labeled, and called demeaning names (e.g., stupid, imbecile, and little dummies). Today, it has become increasingly clear that differences are a part of life. Advocates of students with exceptionalities have pressed for ways to positively respond to their needs in quantifiable ways (Obiakor, Harris, & Beachum, in press). In the United States, it is impossible to divorce the education of these students from the Civil Rights Movement and the subsequent events that followed. To a great extent, the education of these students has been historically influenced by social developments and court decisions in the 1950s and 1960s. For example, the landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) case was a civil rights case that declared separate education as unequal education and unconstitutional (Obiakor, 2009). This was significant because it had the goal of ending racial segregation in schools. Logically, this opened doors of advocacy for students with exceptionalities. The ruling of this case became a catalyst that prompted parents and professionals to lobby for equitable education for their students.

Details

History of Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-629-5

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Susanna Khavul, Edmund Prater and Patricia M. Swafford

The purpose of this paper is to answer the question, “How do international new ventures (INVs) from emerging economies become responsive to the demands of their…

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1379

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the question, “How do international new ventures (INVs) from emerging economies become responsive to the demands of their international customers?”

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a model of international responsiveness that incorporates founding team experience, international firm experience, international strategic orientation, and investment in international supply chain and test the model using data from 293 INVs from three leading emerging economies: China, India, and South Africa.

Findings

Results show that for INVs from emerging economies international strategic orientation mediates the relationship between international firm experience, investment in international supply chain, and international responsiveness. In addition, the authors identify a significant difference in the effects of international strategic orientation on international responsiveness among subgroups of INVs.

Practical implications

Given the specific context of the sample, this study provides unique managerial insights for entrepreneurs planning to internationalize their new ventures from emerging economies.

Originality/value

The paper adds originality and value by extending research on international responsiveness, bridging two disciplines, and using a unique international, multi‐country sample.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 32 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Pietro Evangelista, Riccardo Mogre, Alessandro Perego, Antonino Raspagliesi and Edward Sweeney

In today's competitive scenario, effective supply chain management is increasingly dependent on third‐party logistics (3PL) companies' capabilities and performance. The…

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2797

Abstract

Purpose

In today's competitive scenario, effective supply chain management is increasingly dependent on third‐party logistics (3PL) companies' capabilities and performance. The dissemination of information technology (IT) has contributed to change the supply chain role of 3PL companies and IT is considered an important element influencing the performance of modern logistics companies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between IT and 3PLs' performance, assuming that logistics capabilities play a mediating role in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical evidence based on a questionnaire survey conducted on a sample of logistics service companies operating in the Italian market was used to test a conceptual resource‐based view (RBV) framework linking IT adoption, logistics capabilities and firm performance. Factor analysis and ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis have been used to test hypotheses. The focus of the paper is multidisciplinary in nature; management of information systems, strategy, logistics and supply chain management approaches have been combined in the analysis.

Findings

The results indicate strong relationships among data gathering technologies, transactional capabilities and firm performance, in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness. Moreover, a positive correlation between enterprise information technologies and 3PL financial performance has been found.

Originality/value

The paper successfully uses the concept of logistics capabilities as mediating factor between IT adoption and firm performance. Objective measures have been proposed for IT adoption and logistics capabilities. Direct and indirect relationships among variables have been successfully tested.

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2010

Richard G. Brody

The purpose of this paper is to explore the various methods available when conducting a pre‐employment screening investigation in attempt to hire honest employees, those…

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5714

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the various methods available when conducting a pre‐employment screening investigation in attempt to hire honest employees, those less likely to commit fraud against their organization. While many companies perform the most basic type of background check, this paper suggests that companies need to go beyond the basics when hiring its employees.

Design/methodology/approach

By reviewing the existing literature and conducting interviews with experts in the area of background investigation services, the paper makes suggestions for companies to follow.

Findings

Merely relying on the most basic background check may lead to the hiring of the wrong employee, one likely to commit fraud. Companies should consider performing other screening techniques before hiring an employee.

Practical implications

Background checks have become a widely‐recognized method of pre‐employment screening. However, these checks are just one part of the employee selection process and companies should understand both the practical and legal implications of conducting additional testing.

Originality/value

The guidance provided in this paper will aid companies in the pre‐employment selection process. Both basic and more advanced techniques are discussed and companies can choose any or all of the recommended methods.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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