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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2024

Monica J. Barratt, Ross Coomber, Michala Kowalski, Judith Aldridge, Rasmus Munksgaard, Jason Ferris, Aili Malm, James Martin and David Décary-Hétu

Drug cryptomarkets increase information available to market actors, which should reduce information asymmetry and increase market efficiency. This study aims to determine whether…

Abstract

Purpose

Drug cryptomarkets increase information available to market actors, which should reduce information asymmetry and increase market efficiency. This study aims to determine whether cryptomarket listings accurately represent the advertised substance, weight or number and purity, and whether there are differences in products purchased from the same listing multiple times.

Design/methodology/approach

Law enforcement drug purchases – predominantly cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA and heroin – from Australian cryptomarket vendors (n = 38 in 2016/2017) were chemically analysed and matched with cryptomarket listings (n = 23). Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted.

Findings

Almost all samples contained the advertised substance. In most of these cases, drugs were either supplied as-advertised-weight or number, or overweight or number. All listings that quantified purity overestimated the actual purity. There was no consistent relationship between advertised purity terms and actual purity. Across the six listings purchased from multiple times, repeat purchases from the same listing varied in purity, sometimes drastically, with wide variation detected on listings purchased from only one month apart.

Research limitations/implications

In this data set, cryptomarket listings were mostly accurate, but the system was far from perfect, with purity overestimated. A newer, larger, globally representative sample should be obtained to test the applicability of these findings to currently operating cryptomarkets.

Originality/value

This paper reports on the largest data set of forensic analysis of drug samples obtained from cryptomarkets, where data about advertised drug strength/dose were obtained.

Details

Drugs, Habits and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2752-6739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

James E. Martin, Lyonel Laulié and Ariel M. Lelchook

States with Right-to-Work (RTW) law coverage have increased since 2012, with union membership decreasing. In such states, employees in union-represented positions cannot be…

Abstract

Purpose

States with Right-to-Work (RTW) law coverage have increased since 2012, with union membership decreasing. In such states, employees in union-represented positions cannot be required to be union members and/or pay dues, even though the union must still legally represent them. While union member retention in RTW states provides new challenges for unions, it has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this paper is to extend the literature by testing a model of intent to remain a union member in an RTW context using union loyalty as a mediator.

Design/methodology/approach

The model is based on how different types of exchanges shape intentions to remain a union member. To test the hypotheses, a sample of 475 members was used where an RTW law was about to be implemented in a Midwestern American state.

Findings

Union loyalty mediated the relationships between social and ideological exchanges with the union and employee intent to remain a union member and similarly mediated the organization–employee exchanges. Economic exchanges with the union were not a significant predictor in the full model.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the employment-relations literature by helping us better understand member intent triggered by RTW laws. Insights are provided for both unions and organizations to better manage their relationships with employees.

Originality/value

This study advanced the employee-relations literature by providing a more holistic theoretically based understanding of how unions may retain members by using multiple forms of exchange, often studied separately in previous literature of member–union relationships.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Martin James Wasserberg

This study aimed to investigate whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American and Latina/o children (N = 81) when tested together…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to investigate whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American and Latina/o children (N = 81) when tested together at an urban elementary school in Miami, Florida.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyze the effect of stereotype threat on participants’ reading test performance, a 2 (race/ethnicity) × 2 (test condition) ANOVA was conducted.

Findings

Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children but not of Latina/o children.

Practical Implications

A relationship to Latina/o racial identity is explored as well as suggestions for developing interventions capable of attenuating stereotype threat effects for African American children.

Originality/value

In past research, Latina/o children have been demonstrated to be negatively affected by stereotype threat when tested alone or in the presence of a White comparison group (McKown and Weinstein, 2003; Nader and Clark, 2011). However, the Latina/o participants in this study, tested with an African American comparison group, were unaffected by stereotype threat trending toward experiencing stereotype lift. The present findings posit questioning as to whether Latina/o racial identity moderates stereotype threat effects and how it plays out in elementary schools.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 December 2017

David James Martin

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need to challenge ageism and to draw attention to how art, especially art activism, can challenge Ageism and bring about a new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need to challenge ageism and to draw attention to how art, especially art activism, can challenge Ageism and bring about a new personal understanding of ageing.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a summary of personal reflections by the author.

Findings

The pervasive, ageist, stereotypical attitudes developed at an early age and the possible means to challenge and transform thinking through Art.

Practical implications

Artist and Arts organisations, their commissioners and funders could consider focussing upon ageing across the life course and commission and create work which challenges thinking and the status quo on ageing, reflecting society’s adjustment to an Ageing society.

Social implications

Art and especially art activism could make a fundamental contribution to a raft of strategies to not only combat ageism but assist personal understanding of our ageing.

Originality/value

Currently there are relatively few artists and arts organisation focussing upon ageing across the life course. The paper states the view that such art activity could assist with new ways of understanding personal ageing and challenge ageist attitudes.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

James B. Martin, Joyendu Bhadury, James Cordeiro, Melissa L. Waite and Kwasi Amoako-Gyampah

Division of motor vehicle (DMV) offices serve a wide swath of Americans in all states and can therefore serve as excellent vehicles to study the quality of public services in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Division of motor vehicle (DMV) offices serve a wide swath of Americans in all states and can therefore serve as excellent vehicles to study the quality of public services in the country. However, relatively little attention has been devoted in the academic literature to studying operations in DMV offices, especially as it relates to service quality and productivity. In an attempt to address the same, this paper aims to present the results of a study of DMV offices across the USA through a nationwide survey about vehicle titling and registration services, that received response from 31 of the 50 states and District of Columbia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a mixed methods approach – a sequential unequal weight mixed methods approach starting with a quantitative analysis of DMV operational data followed by a qualitative case study approach. The primary data collected for this study were with a nationwide survey of the highest DMV office in each state, conducted through the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators. Out of the 50 states, 31 states and District of Columbia responded to the survey. In addition to descriptive statistical analysis performed to glean nationwide findings, Data Envelopment Analysis was used to determine efficiency of operations. Finally, extensive in-person interviews with senior managers of DMV offices in Ohio and Indiana were conducted to get more in-depth information for case studies and identification of best practices.

Findings

States exhibit significant variations in labor and capital productivity and based on Data Envelopment Analysis, Texas and Minnesota DMVs are the most efficient in terms of using their labor and capital inputs to maximize the number of transactional services rendered. The authors also find that while operational performance of vehicle titling and registration services is monitored by most DMV offices across the nation, assessment of customer satisfaction received much less attention. Among the states that do well on both are Indiana and Ohio; the case studies presented based on interviews with their officials that also identify best practices.

Research limitations/implications

This research was limited to the USA as are its findings. Additionally, it focuses only on vehicle titling and registration at DMV offices because that represents the bulk of services performed by a DMV and the output is standard across all states. Nonetheless, a future study should be extended to other DMV services.

Practical implications

Given the finding that assessment of customer satisfaction is not widely practiced in DMV offices, DMV officials should address this by putting appropriate systems in place. Additionally, practitioners and state officials can use the findings of this study to develop best practices for their operations and also determine the most appropriate ways to structure the provision of those services that result in enhanced efficiencies and customer satisfaction.

Social implications

DMV services are among the most widely used services offered by the government in the USA and the overall size and scope of services provided by them across the country is immense. Thus, any improvements in productivity and service quality has significant implications in terms of improving public satisfaction with government services.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first nationwide comparative study of DMV offices in the USA that focuses on service quality and analyzes productivity across the states. Additionally, the case study provided at the end of the paper identifies best practices from two states that have received national recognition for service quality which could be adopted by all DMV offices across the USA. The findings also conform/strengthen numerous hypotheses espoused in existing models and theories from service operations literature by providing evidence in their favor.

Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

James W. Martin

This paper aims to examine the tourist business and marketing strategies of a US agribusiness giant, the United Fruit Company (UFCO), between its incorporation in 1899 and 1940…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the tourist business and marketing strategies of a US agribusiness giant, the United Fruit Company (UFCO), between its incorporation in 1899 and 1940. It considers how tourist marketing served the company’s public-relations interest and tourism’s broader connection to narratives of US ascendancy in the Caribbean Basin.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on original research in a series of published company materials, including annual reports and a wide variety of marketing materials, as well as a variety of rare primary sources documenting the experiences of US tourists on UFCO cruises.

Findings

From its incorporation in 1899, the UFCO developed a Caribbean cruise business as a vital part of its strategies of vertical integration and expansion around the region. Marketing tropical travel at a time when tropical disease dominated US perceptions of such places required a thorough conceptual makeover, and UFCO publicity played an important part in this process. The company advertised Caribbean destinations first for their therapeutic possibilities, but by the 1920s, a framework of anachronistic space and picturesque primitivism predominated in marketing campaigns. The structure of this narrative naturalized the company’s, and more broadly, US, hegemony in the region. While on cruises, tourists became witnesses to and participants in a series of spectacles and activities highlighting the company’s technological prowess and benevolence.

Originality/value

This analysis centers on a largely overlooked dimension of the famed banana company’s enterprise. It is grounded in a wide collection of primary sources largely untapped by researchers, a source base that brings tourist perception and experience into the story of this company’s marketing efforts. This research brings tourism and leisure into the historical discussion of US power in early-twentieth-century Latin America.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2017

Valentin Cojanu

This chapter contributes to the conceptual effort to find an ‘encompassing framework’ to understand the rugged landscape of territorial development. A paradigmatic shift is in…

Abstract

This chapter contributes to the conceptual effort to find an ‘encompassing framework’ to understand the rugged landscape of territorial development. A paradigmatic shift is in need to reflect the gains from trade increasingly as a result of territorial communality rather than market optimality.

This contribution reviews first the tenets of the core-periphery models premised on three interpretations of space, that is, uniform-abstract space, diversified-relational space and uniform-stylised space. The conventional (spatial) models of peripherality are increasingly questionable when considering the relevance of more appropriate ‘aspatial’ concepts for understanding the conditions for growth and development across territories.

The conclusions emphasise the need to drop the norm of a universal policy related to a space of development divided in advanced and lagging areas. The implications range from re-stating the unit of analysis to re-stating the role of policy coordination in a multi-core integration environment.

This chapter attempts to evade the ‘illusion’ of the coincidence of political space with economic and human space. We aim at gaining ground towards a framework of analysing development that substitutes relational specificity of local economies for uniform territories of aggregate socio-economic features.

Details

Core-Periphery Patterns Across the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-495-8

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Kanalis A. Ockree, James Martin and Richard A. Moellenberndt

This is an illustrative case analyzing shareholder and accounting outcomes and legal issues resulting from a merger of two major publicly traded companies. In today's business…

Abstract

This is an illustrative case analyzing shareholder and accounting outcomes and legal issues resulting from a merger of two major publicly traded companies. In today's business world, the “urge to merge” is tempered by heightened shareholder activism. In response to this activism, boards must proceed with care when negotiating mergers. Challenges to mergers that appear to be in the shareholders' best interest occur often. As is the case here, shareholders and their well funded legal representatives, seek damages for alleged bad decisions. Conoco Oil and Phillips Petroleum announced their intention to merge in November 2001. At that time the cost of gasoline spiraled ever upward and large oil firms put heavy competitive pressure on smaller oil producer/refiners. The merger described as a “merger of equals”, intimated that neither Conoco nor Phillips shareholders would receive a financial advantage (or disadvantage) over other merging shareholders following the completion of the merger. Immediately following the announcement, Michael Iorio, a Conoco shareholder, filed a lawsuit, claiming damages to Conoco shareholders from the merger of the two firms.

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Evelyn S. Meyer

“The issue we confront today is not primarily one concerning a special day for an individual. The issue is in reality whether our nation can summon the will and vision to…

Abstract

“The issue we confront today is not primarily one concerning a special day for an individual. The issue is in reality whether our nation can summon the will and vision to recognize a great and historic period in its history by designating the birthdate of one who made major contributions to the period a national public holiday.”

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Dave Garrett

Discusses the use of a corporate Internet in a geographically‐spread consulting firm, James Martin & Co., to share ideas, vision, client information and results. Illustrates with…

Abstract

Discusses the use of a corporate Internet in a geographically‐spread consulting firm, James Martin & Co., to share ideas, vision, client information and results. Illustrates with examples. Applications include a quarterly Employee Attitude Survey and regular discussion forums. Proposes that a well‐designed corporate intranet is a highly effective method of making intangible vision and mission pledges more tangible.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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