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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2013

Chris W. James and James M. Stacey

Recent governmental policy has emphasised the need for greater choice and inclusion for people with learning disabilities. Accordingly, learning disabilities services are…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent governmental policy has emphasised the need for greater choice and inclusion for people with learning disabilities. Accordingly, learning disabilities services are increasingly offering a greater choice of psychological interventions to people with learning disabilities. A growing body of research has examined the use of psychodynamic interventions for people with learning disabilities. The purpose of the this paper is to identify, outline, and evaluate research on the efficacy of psychodynamic approaches with people with learning disabilities and to consider the implications for clinical practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic search identified 13 relevant studies. A qualitative review of these studies was carried out.

Findings

Overall, the reviewed studies offer some preliminary support for the use of psychodynamic approaches with people with learning disabilities.

Research limitations/implications

A number of methodological issues are identified (particularly concerning the influence of extraneous variables and the generalisability of findings) and further, larger scale and more robust, research is required.

Practical implications

Learning disabilities services should consider providing psychodynamic psychotherapy for people with a mild learning disability experiencing mental health, behavioural, and/or offending problems.

Originality/value

This paper provides an up-to-date, comprehensive review of the literature on the efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy for people with a learning disability that will be of use to services providing therapeutic support to people with a learning disability and to people commissioning those services.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Erica E. McInnis

The purpose of this paper is to report the evidence base for the practice of individual psychodynamic psychotherapy with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the evidence base for the practice of individual psychodynamic psychotherapy with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs).

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review.

Findings

In total, 14 papers were reviewed. From these, one existing review and seven individual papers provided enough evidence to support effectiveness of individual psychodynamic psychotherapy for people with IDs.

Research limitations/implications

This research indicates individual psychodynamic psychotherapy to be of benefit. Indeed, all studies reviewed supported individual psychodynamic psychotherapy, but methodological shortcomings weakened the confidence placed in findings for some studies. Limitations of this review include methodological shortcomings of studies reviewed, a small number of existing studies and reliance on case studies.

Practical implications

Therapists and commissioners of services should routinely make individual psychodynamic psychotherapy available as part of a spectrum of therapies available to people with IDs who experience emotional and behavioural problems. This is because it is needed for some clients and they benefit.

Social implications

Individual psychodynamic psychotherapy for people with IDs adds to the range of therapies available to alleviate emotional distress and enhance well-being. These are necessary to provide a foundation for meaningful contribution to society, particularly for those who have experienced psychological trauma (Frankish, 2016).

Originality/value

This review includes more relevant studies than previous reviews and adds to a limited number of reviews in this area.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2017

Heidi M. Gansen

In this chapter, I focus on two methodological issues involved with conducting ethnographies of very young children; establishing a researcher role in preschool classrooms…

Abstract

In this chapter, I focus on two methodological issues involved with conducting ethnographies of very young children; establishing a researcher role in preschool classrooms while simultaneously gaining access into children’s culture and the trust of adult gatekeepers involved (i.e., teachers). Drawing on my participant observation experiences in 10 preschool classrooms (over 470 hours and 19 months of observations), I challenge the use of the friend role (Fine & Sandstrom, 1988) and least-adult role (Mandell, 1988) in research with young children. I examine how teachers mediate the researcher’s role in participant observation of children in preschool classrooms demonstrating the importance of establishing a middle manager role between teachers and children when conducting participant observations. I also discuss strategies used to overcome adult’s mediation of the researcher’s role, and strategies for simultaneously gaining teachers and children’s rapport in participant observation research in ways that formulate positive relationships with adults and children. I demonstrate the importance of researcher reflexivity of children’s and adults’ assessments of researchers’ roles in the field, highlighting how researchers’ impacts on children are not dependent on the times they are present in the field. Instead, I show that children continue to critically assess researchers’ positionality and roles in the field, often times seeking the help of adults (i.e., parents and teachers), further stressing the need for researchers to negotiate an understanding of their roles with both adults and children prior to and while in the field.

Details

Researching Children and Youth: Methodological Issues, Strategies, and Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-098-1

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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Donald L. Gilstrap

The purpose of this case study was to increase the knowledge base of how research librarians experience and cope with the turbulence of change within their library system…

Abstract

The purpose of this case study was to increase the knowledge base of how research librarians experience and cope with the turbulence of change within their library system. A library belonging to the Association of Research Libraries was selected for case study investigation. Seventeen librarians participated in on-site interviews, utilizing a protocol composed of a clustering technique and semi-structured interviewing. Instrumental case studies of each individual were then developed through a collective case method. The findings presented in this chapter include: the competing tensions between the physical and virtual environments, the speed of change, the search for professional meaning, and coping with the experiences of professional change. Analysis of the findings suggest: the emergence of a hypercritical state, the limiting nature of negative feedback, a complex systems framework for professional thinking, and coping in the hypercritical organization.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-580-2

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2013

Hilary Brown

This paper is a commentary on “The effectiveness of psychodynamic interventions for people with learning disabilities: a systematic review” by Chris James and James Stacey

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is a commentary on “The effectiveness of psychodynamic interventions for people with learning disabilities: a systematic review” by Chris James and James Stacey. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the thesis that standardised ways of evaluating health care interventions may have the inadvertent effect of undermining the case that people with intellectual disabilities should be offered the same opportunities to address their emotional and mental health difficulties as other citizens.

Design/methodology/approach

The commentary argues that while the evidence base focuses on the outcomes of orthodox one-to-one interventions, sometimes broader “contextual reformulation” and systemic interventions are called for. However, family- or service-based interventions tend not to feature in studies.

Findings

The commentary illustrates these issues by discussing two case studies, which demonstrate how relational issues tend to be unhelpfully focused on the person with intellectual disabilities to the detriment of family members or direct care staff, who may be struggling to make sense of the person's behaviour or distress.

Originality/value

The commentary supports the argument put forward in the longer paper and also argues for mental health services to be offered on a non-discriminatory basis to people with intellectual disabilities and to their family members. But it also suggests that one of the additional impacts of service level psychotherapeutic interventions is to re-establish respect for the work of direct care staff whose work is often presented as if it is little more than domestic drudgery when in fact it involves negotiating and responding to people and their issues with great sensitivity and balance.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Jussara dos Santos Raxlen and Rachel Sherman

In the 1970s and 1980s, studies of the unpaid household and family labor of upper-class women linked this labor to class reproduction. In recent years, however, the topic…

Abstract

In the 1970s and 1980s, studies of the unpaid household and family labor of upper-class women linked this labor to class reproduction. In recent years, however, the topic of class has dropped out of analyses of unpaid labor, and such labor has been ignored in recent studies of elites. In this chapter, drawing primarily on 18 in-depth interviews with wealthy New York stay-at-home mothers, we look at what elite women’s unpaid labor consists of, highlighting previously untheorized consumption and lifestyle work; ask what it reproduces; and analyze how women themselves interpret and represent it. In the current historical moment, elite women face not only the cultural expectation that they will work for pay, but also the prominence of meritocracy as a mechanism of class legitimation in a diversified upper class. In this context, we argue, elite women’s unpaid labor serves to reproduce “meritocratic” dispositions of children rather than closed, homogenous elite communities, as identified in previous studies. Our respondents struggle to frame their activities as legitimate and productive work. In doing so, they not only resist longstanding stereotypes of “ladies who lunch” but also seek to justify and normalize their own class privileges, thus reproducing the same hegemonic discourses of work and worth that stigmatize their unpaid work.

Details

Professional Work: Knowledge, Power and Social Inequalities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-210-9

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Mary A. Ferdig and James D. Ludema

Complexity theorists propose that organizations are made up of complex responsive processes in which people create and recreate organizational forms through dynamic…

Abstract

Complexity theorists propose that organizations are made up of complex responsive processes in which people create and recreate organizational forms through dynamic micro-level interactions. Social constructionists add that conversations are the means by which these interactions occur. Our analysis illustrates how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) engaged a wide range of stakeholders in a successful dialogue process to recreate a new system for monitoring nuclear reactors. The success was due, in large part, to the conversational qualities tacitly and explicitly agreed to by those involved in the process which included a spirit of freedom, inclusion, inquiry, spontaneity, and possibility. Using a grounded theory building process, we show how these qualities produced transformative change by increasing levels of interconnectivity, shared identity, and collective capacity among participants. These findings provide the beginnings of a model for understanding continuous and transformative change and demonstrate the value of engaging the “whole system” in sustained dialogue, even in complex, highly regulated environments.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-167-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1983

In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…

Abstract

In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Stacey-Leigh Joseph and Mirjam van Donk

A key development in South Africa's response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been the recognition that there are a number of external factors in the socio-economic and…

Abstract

A key development in South Africa's response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been the recognition that there are a number of external factors in the socio-economic and physical environment in which people live that are central to the spread of the epidemic. A growing body of evidence suggests that poverty, inequality, inadequate shelter, overcrowding and other symptoms of underdevelopment are fundamental drivers in undermining people's ability to practice and negotiate safe sex, thereby enhancing vulnerability to HIV infection. Similarly, these factors affect the ability of individuals, households and communities to cope with the subsequent health and socio-economic effects of infection. In a context where large numbers of South Africans live in poverty, without adequate shelter and access to basic resources and services, HIV/AIDS will thus have far reaching and serious impacts, not only on citizens and communities but also for and on the state.

The South African government has shifted its approach to housing development from the provision of housing to a sustainable human settlements approach, as encapsulated in its 2004 development plan ‘Breaking New Ground’. This paper explores the conceptual and theoretical links between this sustainable human settlements agenda and HIV/AIDS. It argues that the creation of sustainable and integrated human settlements is potentially a crucial component in the response to HIV/AIDS. However, this can only be achieved if HIV/AIDS becomes an explicit component of sustainable human settlements planning, development and management. In light of this, the paper discusses key characteristics of integrated, sustainable human settlements and reviews the current instruments for the implementation of a sustainable settlement agenda in South Africa in relation to the dynamics and implications of HIV/AIDS both for the South African state and its people. The paper concludes with a set of policy recommendations to make HIV/AIDS an integral component of the sustainable human settlements agenda.

Details

Open House International, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1985

The librarian and researcher have to be able to uncover specific articles in their areas of interest. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume IV, like Volume III…

Abstract

The librarian and researcher have to be able to uncover specific articles in their areas of interest. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume IV, like Volume III, contains features to help the reader to retrieve relevant literature from MCB University Press' considerable output. Each entry within has been indexed according to author(s) and the Fifth Edition of the SCIMP/SCAMP Thesaurus. The latter thus provides a full subject index to facilitate rapid retrieval. Each article or book is assigned its own unique number and this is used in both the subject and author index. This Volume indexes 29 journals indicating the depth, coverage and expansion of MCB's portfolio.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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