Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

James M. Williamson

The paper examines the evolution of beginning farms’ income statement and balance sheet items over a 15-year period. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the evolution of beginning farms’ income statement and balance sheet items over a 15-year period. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the diversity of beginning farms from a financial point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), the author constructs a synthetic panel of data consisting of age cohorts of beginning farmers and follow them over time. Baseline financial information for the farm income statement and balance sheet is examined in 1999 and again in 2014 for each cohort.

Findings

Overall, there is a marked contrast in the evolution in the income statement between beginning farmers who are under 45 years old and those over 45. The gross cash income of the youngest cohorts grows tremendously, as do their expenses, indicating rapid expansion in production on the part of the youngest cohorts. The change in the balance sheets of the cohorts also provides a glimpse into the changing roles of beginning famers over time. The youngest cohort of beginning farmers increase the current and non-current assets on their balance sheets by a substantial amount, more than doubling both. Furthermore, the youngest cohort is the only group to take on more current liabilities, indicating increased financing of the production expenses.

Practical implications

Differences in the evolution of financial profiles of beginning farms may predict differences in future output, and it could be a predictor of the farm’s operational goals or intentions, as well as predictor of future financial needs and challenges.

Originality/value

Knowing and understanding likely trajectories of beginning farmers may provide an opportunity to better tailor farm programs, outreach, and support to beginning farmers.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

James M. Williamson, Michael P. Brady and Ron Durst

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC), a piece of US tax law that allows for tax‐deferred exchanges of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC), a piece of US tax law that allows for tax‐deferred exchanges of like‐kind property.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper derives a theoretical premium value for exchanges and presents the first national level analysis of Federal tax data on the use of like‐kind exchanges involving farmland between 1999 and 2005.

Findings

There is significant interest in Section 1031 from stakeholders in rural communities because there is widespread belief that the recent growth in farmland values may have, in part, been stimulated by Section 1031 exchanges of farmland. Despite these concerns, little is known about the extent of such exchanges.

Originality/value

This paper provides insight into the value and use of the IRC's Section 1031 provision. Based on simulations of a theoretical model using plausible assumptions about asset growth, the paper shows how proposed tax changes will affect the tax value of the deferral.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

James M Williamson and Sarah Stutzman

– The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of Internal Revenue Code cost recovery provisions – Section 179 and “bonus depreciation” – on farm capital investment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of Internal Revenue Code cost recovery provisions – Section 179 and “bonus depreciation” – on farm capital investment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors construct a synthetic panel of data consisting of cohorts of similar farms based on state and production specialization using the USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey for years 1996-2012. Employing panel data methods, the authors are able to control for time-invariant fixed effects, as well as the effects of past investment on current investment.

Findings

The authors estimate statistically significant investment demand elasticities with respect to the Section 179 expensing deduction of between 0.28 and 0.50. A change in bonus depreciation, on average, had little impact on capital investment.

Practical implications

The estimates suggest there is a modest effect of the cost recovery provisions on investment overall, but a stronger effect on farms that have more than $10,000 in gross cash farm income. There are other implications for the agricultural sector: the provisions may encourage technology adoption with its associated benefits, such as reduced cost of production and improved conservation practices. On the other hand, the policy could contribute to the growing concentration in production as large commercial farms expand their operated acreage to take advantage of increasingly efficient physical capital.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research to use a nationally representative dataset to estimate to impact of Section 179 and “bonus depreciation” on farm investment. The findings provide evidence of the provisions’ impact on farm capital purchases.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 76 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Downloads
314

Abstract

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 72 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Jack L. Winstead, Milorad M. Novicevic, John H. Humphreys and Ifeoluwa Tobi Popoola

The purpose of this paper is to explore the congruencies and incongruences between the moral and entrepreneurial accountabilities of Lillian McMurry to provide insights…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the congruencies and incongruences between the moral and entrepreneurial accountabilities of Lillian McMurry to provide insights for entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. Ms McMurry was the entrepreneurial force behind the founding of Trumpet Records, a unique, Mississippi Delta Blues record label in the 1950s.

Design/methodology/approach

The examination of this historical case study is grounded in the theoretical examination of the tensions between Lillian McMurry’s felt moral and entrepreneurial accountabilities. Using an analytical archival historical method, a narrative explanation of how these tensions influenced the success and, ultimately, the failure of Trumpet Records are developed.

Findings

The accounting records highlighted a number of issues hampering the commercial profitability of Trumpet Records. Moreover, the archival and documentary sources examined also proved revealing as to conflicts between Ms McMurry’s personal character and mercantile determination as an entrepreneur.

Research limitations/implications

The approach of using analytically structured historical narrative as a research strategy is but one method of explaining the tensions between the moral and entrepreneurial accountabilities of Lillian McMurry.

Practical implications

The proponents of virtue ethics suggest that this Aristotelian personal character perspective is more fundamental than traditional, act-oriented consequentialist teleological and deontological ethical decision-making approaches. A perspective of moral accountability exceeding the norm of the obstructionist stance is required to maintain a sound balance between entrepreneurial accountability and moral accountability.

Originality/value

This paper adopts a mercantile perspective, using the accounting and related business records of Trumpet Records, to examine the leadership characteristics of Lillian McMurry. Practical lessons learned for entrepreneurs facing the moral dilemma of competing accountabilities and advance questions to spur future research in this area are drawn.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Vincent Geloso

In this chapter, I attempt to extend insights regarding statistical aggregates from scholars, such as Hayek (1931) and Mises (1947), to the topic of inequality. Using the…

Abstract

In this chapter, I attempt to extend insights regarding statistical aggregates from scholars, such as Hayek (1931) and Mises (1947), to the topic of inequality. Using the work of Lindert and Williamson (2016), I show that a disaggregation of inequality into some of its many subcomponents alters our reading of its evolution. While I only work with stylized facts from the field of economic history, and the authors argues that the promising implications derived from disaggregation militate in favor of more effort being directed toward decomposing the evolution of inequality.

Details

Austrian Economics: The Next Generation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-577-7

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Downloads
57010

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 May 1901

The Sanitary Committee of a certain County Council, strong with the strength of recent creation, have lately been animated by a desire to distinguish themselves in some…

Abstract

The Sanitary Committee of a certain County Council, strong with the strength of recent creation, have lately been animated by a desire to distinguish themselves in some way, and, proceeding along the lines of least resistance, they appear to have selected the Public Analyst as the most suitable object for attack. The charge against this unfortunate official was not that he is incompetent, or that he had been in any way negligent of his duties as prescribed by Act of Parliament, but simply and solely that he has the temerity to reside in London, which city is distant by a certain number of miles from the much favoured district controlled by the County Council aforesaid. The committee were favoured in their deliberations by the assistance of no less an authority than the “Principal” of a local “Technical School”;—and who could be more capable than he to express an opinion upon so simple a matter? This eminent exponent of scientific truths, after due and proper consideration, is reported to have delivered himself of the opinion that “scientifically it would be desirable that the analyst should reside in the district, as the delay occasioned by the sending of samples of water to London is liable to produce a misleading effect upon an analysis.” Apparently appalled by the contemplation of such possibilities, and strengthened by another expression of opinion to the effect that there were as “good men” in the district as in London, the committee resolved to recommend the County Council to determine the existing arrangement with the Public Analyst, and to appoint a “local analyst for all purposes.” Thus, the only objection which could be urged to the employment of a Public Analyst resident in London was the ridiculous one that the composition of a sample of water was likely to seriously alter during the period of its transit to London, and this contention becomes still more absurd when it is remembered that the examination of water samples is no part of the official duty of a Public Analyst. The employment of local scientific talent may be very proper when the object to be attained is simply the more or less imperfect instruction of the rising generation in the rudiments of what passes in this country for “technical education”; but the work of the Public Analyst is serious and responsible, and cannot be lightly undertaken by every person who may be acquainted with some of the uses of a test‐tube. The worthy members of this committee may find to their cost, as other committees have found before them, that persons possessing the requisite knowledge and experience are not necessarily indigenous to their district. Supposing that the County Council adopts the recommendation, the aspirations of the committee may even then be strangled in their infancy, as the Local Government Board will want to know all about the matter, and the committee will have to give serious and valid reasons in support of their case.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 3 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

A distinction must be drawn between a dismissal on the one hand, and on the other a repudiation of a contract of employment as a result of a breach of a fundamental term…

Downloads
1674

Abstract

A distinction must be drawn between a dismissal on the one hand, and on the other a repudiation of a contract of employment as a result of a breach of a fundamental term of that contract. When such a repudiation has been accepted by the innocent party then a termination of employment takes place. Such termination does not constitute dismissal (see London v. James Laidlaw & Sons Ltd (1974) IRLR 136 and Gannon v. J. C. Firth (1976) IRLR 415 EAT).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

1 – 10 of over 1000