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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2016

Charles B. Moss, James F. Oehmke and Alexandre Lyambabaje

This chapter examines whether donor investments in a market channel that rewards product quality increase food security in Rwanda. Specifically, do policy interventions…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines whether donor investments in a market channel that rewards product quality increase food security in Rwanda. Specifically, do policy interventions that improve marketing channels increase the price received by farmers also increases smallholder income? Furthermore, does this increase in income improve food security?

Methodology/approach

To examine the effect of the policy intervention, we estimates the relationship between the share of income spent on food and income (Working’s Model) using ordinary least squares and a logit regression.

Findings

The empirical results support Working’s conjecture (i.e., the share of income spent on food declines as income increases). Furthermore, whether the household benefits from the improved market channel does not affect the share of income spent on food.

Practical implications

Increased household income appears to improve food security. However, the lack of a statistically significant effect of the policy intervention variable indicates that commercial agriculture does not eliminate household food production at home.

Details

Food Security in a Food Abundant World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-215-3

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Olufemi D. Bolarinwa, James F. Oehmke and Charles B. Moss

The lack of theoretical and pragmatic way of measuring agricultural commercialization has been responsible for the inconsistent results for the impact of agricultural…

Abstract

Purpose

The lack of theoretical and pragmatic way of measuring agricultural commercialization has been responsible for the inconsistent results for the impact of agricultural commercialization on household welfare. This study makes use of an input-based market participation approach that utilizes household preplanting production decision to stratify farming households according to production orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study estimates a system of input and consumer demand equations. It augments traditional input and consumer demand equations with an additional variable based on an endogenous switch, which measures the probability of being a commercial farming household. Empirical evidence suggests that market orientation is an important determinant of the level of traded input and hence, market participation. Predicted probabilities obtained from the endogenous switch are used to stratify households into subsistence and commercial agricultural households.

Findings

Results of the relative effect of commercial agriculture on the level of household food security support the claim that production orientation does affect the relationship between the relative share of food expenditure to the household total expenditures and the logarithm of household expenditure for this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

Research limitations/implications

As in the case of all generalized method of moments studies, the results depend on the robustness of the instruments. However, search for better instruments may run afoul of Leamer's ad hoc specification search with nonexperimental data.

Originality/value

This paper is original in its formulation of an endogenous switch between subsistence and commercial agriculture. This switch is estimated as a latent variable following a logit form.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2016

Abstract

Details

Food Security in a Food Abundant World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-215-3

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2019

Kristin Franklin and James Oehmke

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the social institutions of trust, accountability and corporate shared value in creating an enabling environment for private sector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the social institutions of trust, accountability and corporate shared value in creating an enabling environment for private sector investment in African agricultural and food systems.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses mixed methods. A value chain framework models interactions among stakeholders in the agriculture, agribusiness and food sectors. The social institutions of accountability and trust are introduced into the model, followed by a Rwanda premium coffee value chain case study.

Findings

The conceptual and case study results show that best practices can increase smallholder farmer, agricultural service provider, financial intermediary, and food processor investments in and benefits from the agriculture sector.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed on the economic foundations of development cooperation based on trust, accountability and shared values, best practices and the link with desired societal outcomes, such as the sustainable development goals.

Social implications

Mutual accountability processes, as they are maturing in Africa, are at the cutting edge of creating processes where multiple stakeholders, including agribusiness, can come together to make joint commitments to a shared development agenda, and where stakeholders hold themselves and others accountable for meeting these commitments.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to bring together cutting-edge advances in corporate shared values, trust and accountability in the context of African agricultural and agribusiness development.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Dave D. Weatherspoon, Marie Steele-Adjognon, Fidèle Niyitanga, Jean Paul Dushimumuremyi, Anwar Naseem and James Oehmke

An extended period of economic growth along with stubborn childhood stunting and wasting levels raises questions about how consumer food purchasing behaviors respond to…

Abstract

Purpose

An extended period of economic growth along with stubborn childhood stunting and wasting levels raises questions about how consumer food purchasing behaviors respond to income increases in Rwanda. The purpose of this paper is to assess the role income, prices, policy, agricultural production, and market access play on how rural households purchase different food groups.

Design/methodology/approach

Six separate log-normal double hurdle models are run on six different food groups to examine what affects the probability a household purchases in each food group and for those who do purchase, what determines the quantity purchased.

Findings

Rural Rwandans are price and expenditure responsive but prices have more impact on food group purchases. Crop production resulted in reduced household market procurement for its associated food group but had mixed effects on the purchases of all other food groups. Rural Rwandans purchase and consume low amounts of animal-based proteins which may be a leading factor related to the high stunting and wasting rates. Owning an animal increased the purchased quantity of meat but lowered the purchased quantity of most other food groups.

Practical implications

Results suggest that policies and programs have to address multiple constraints simultaneously to increase the purchases of the limited food groups in the rural household diets that may be contributing to the high rates of stunting and wasting.

Originality/value

This study is the first to evaluate the interplay among prices, household income, household production, policies and donor programs, and demographic variables on rural Rwandan household food purchases.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Wenche Malmedal, Randi Hammervold and Britt-Inger Saveman

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that influence the probability that staff will commit acts of inadequate care, abuse, and neglect.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that influence the probability that staff will commit acts of inadequate care, abuse, and neglect.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey study was carried out in one county in the middle of Norway (Sør-Trøndelag). Random sampling, stratified by size of nursing homes, and location (rural or urban areas), was used to select a variety of nursing homes from a total population of 55 nursing homes. All staff working in 16 nursing homes working were asked to participate in the study. A response rate of 79 per cent was achieved (n=616).

Findings

Findings reveal that location and size of the nursing home, age of the staff, education level, job satisfaction, resident aggression, and conflicts between residents and staff predict inadequate care, abuse, and neglect. The most consistent findings are that resident aggression increases the risk for all three types of inadequate care, and that conflicts predict different types of inadequate care depending on whether the conflicts are related to direct care-giving activities or not.

Practical implications

Nursing home care is an important part of care for the elderly, and should be characterized by good-quality services. The relation between inadequate care and resident aggression, conflicts, and other factors shown in this study points to the relevance of further improvements in nursing home practices to minimize the occurrence of episodes of inadequate care, abuse, and neglect.

Originality/value

This study investigated the relationships between 11 specific factors and different types of inadequate care in a nursing home context.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Francine Rodier, Fabien Durif and Myriam Ertz

Previous research has extensively examined “food deserts,” where access to healthy food is limited. However, little is known of the buying behavior at the individual…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has extensively examined “food deserts,” where access to healthy food is limited. However, little is known of the buying behavior at the individual household level in terms of buying habits and consumption in these areas. The purpose of this paper is to determine to what extent other factors than access can account for the purchase of healthy food products, namely, fruits and vegetables.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes to partially fill this gap through a qualitative (n=55) and quantitative (n=512) study of those people who are in charge of their household purchases in two food deserts in the city of Montreal.

Findings

Results show that geographical access to supermarkets is not the main factor fostering the purchase of healthy foods (fruits and vegetables). Indeed, food education (e.g. information, simple recipes, cooking classes), associated with a changing mediation process through product diversification (e.g. availability of local products in bulk) and supply (e.g. farmers) seems to be more significant.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies could compare the results obtained through this study in different socio-demographic contexts. Longitudinal analyses could also increase the understanding of the social and commercial challenges.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous studies, the results show that geographical access to supermarkets is not the main factor fostering the purchase of fruits and vegetables. Indeed, food education (e.g. information, simple recipes, cooking classes), associated with a changing mediation process through product diversification (e.g. products in bulk) and supply (e.g. farmers) seem to be more significant.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Steve Moore

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a research project designed to enhance knowledge of the current extent and nature of abuse in contemporary care homes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a research project designed to enhance knowledge of the current extent and nature of abuse in contemporary care homes for older people.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-completion, postal questionnaire was used to elicit both numerical and textual data that were subsequently subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The questionnaire was distributed to newly appointed care staff in five participating care homes providing care to older people to determine the nature of any abuse they may have witnessed in the homes in which they had previously worked.

Findings

A significant proportion of respondents had witnessed numerous occurrences of primarily psychological and physical abuse and neglect, perpetrated against the older people living in the care homes in which they had previously worked.

Research limitations/implications

Although the research draws upon the experiences of only 197 anonymous questionnaire respondents, of whom 180 had witnessed abuse, data suggest that abuse continues to occur in some care homes for older people.

Originality/value

The research has revealed staffs’ recent experiences of a range of abusive acts and practices. When combined with two previous studies using the same or a similar methodology, the research also confirms the enduring presence of abuse in care homes. Findings again suggest that changes are required to current methods of external scrutiny and investigation of practices in care homes.

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