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We examine whether Douglas and Santerre's (1990) substitutes hypothesis obtains for bank holding companies (BHCs); i.e. whether degree of ownership concentration and…
We examine whether Douglas and Santerre's (1990) substitutes hypothesis obtains for bank holding companies (BHCs); i.e. whether degree of ownership concentration and salary incentives are alternative methods of aligning BHC CEO incentives with those of shareholders. Also examined is the relation between CEO salary and bonus and CEO tenure. Using a sample of 95 BHC drawn from the 1990 Forbes magazine compensation survey, we regress CEO salary and bonus against ROE, stock return, two measures of ownership concentration, and a CEO tenure variable. Our results 1) support the substitutes hypothesis as applied to BHCs, and, 2) find a negative relation between CEO salary and bonus and CEO tenure.
A dinner was held at the Café Royal on Tuesday, January 10th to celebrate the completion of forty years' existence by the British Food Journal and the British Analytical Control. A number of eminent people were present, and complimentary references were made to the invaluable services which the Journal and the Control had rendered in assisting in the suppression of adulteration and in giving authentic indication of genuineness.
This chapter reviews research on multi-level organizational justice. The first half of the chapter provides the historical context for this issue, discusses…
This chapter reviews research on multi-level organizational justice. The first half of the chapter provides the historical context for this issue, discusses organizational-level antecedents to individual-level justice perceptions (i.e., culture and organizational structure), and then focuses on the study of justice climate. A summary model depicts the justice climate findings to date and gives recommendations for future research. The second half of the chapter discusses the process of justice climate emergence. Pulling from classical bottom-up and top-down climate emergence models as well as contemporary justice theory, it outlines a theoretical model whereby individual differences and environmental characteristics interact to influence justice judgments. Through a process of information sharing, shared and unique experiences, and interactions among group members, a justice climate emerges. The chapter concludes by presenting ideas about how such a process might be empirically modeled.
The major objectives of this study were to investigate the relative effectiveness of three types of selectors in the process of selecting new graduate students for an…
The major objectives of this study were to investigate the relative effectiveness of three types of selectors in the process of selecting new graduate students for an educational administration program and further to examine the usefulness of various pieces of information submitted by these graduate students when applying for the program in predicting both success in the graduate program and in later administrative practice. Groups of the three types of selectors were presented with the application files of six actual students who had enrolled in a graduate program of educational administration five years previous. The respondents were asked to predict on the basis of the information in the files whether the students would do well in the program and whether they would have successful administrative careers. The actual achievements of these students were known to the researchers. The findings indicate that the three types of selectors studied were equally effective in the selection process with some tendency for each group to select better for a particular aspect of success. It was also shown that most of the application materials requested from students are useful in predicting future success. Several recommendations based on these findings are presented.
Using a set of in‐basket materials that suggest specific leadership styles, 135 graduate students in educational administration evaluated hypothetical superintendents who…
Using a set of in‐basket materials that suggest specific leadership styles, 135 graduate students in educational administration evaluated hypothetical superintendents who were depicted as female or male and rule bound or flexible. Overall, the fictitious female superintendent was rated as less fair and less flexible than her male counterpart. Moreover, the female superintendent described as rule bound was rated as more inflexible than the male who exhibited identical behaviors and the woman described as flexible was rated as less flexible than the identidal male. When these results were viewed in the context of a body of literature that shows women administrators to be fully as effective as men and in the context of the small number of women in educational leadership positions, they strongly suggest that sex bias has operated to the disadvantage of women and the education profession.
Situational involvement (SI) and enduring involvement (EI) are important predictors of spectator sports tourist behaviours. For this study, onsite and web surveys were…
Situational involvement (SI) and enduring involvement (EI) are important predictors of spectator sports tourist behaviours. For this study, onsite and web surveys were utilised to help understand how SI and EI levels, with both event and destination, may vary according to the primary and secondary trip purpose of a spectator sports tourist. Results revealed differences between the two groups only within certain aspects of SI and EI with the destination.
Although the first known sociological writings on sport in the English-speaking Caribbean (ESC) date from 1953, the sociology of sport is very much a nascent subdiscipline…
Although the first known sociological writings on sport in the English-speaking Caribbean (ESC) date from 1953, the sociology of sport is very much a nascent subdiscipline that occupies a very marginal and almost nonexistent position in the region’s educational, research, and development agenda. This is evident in the number of sport sociologists, courses of study, professional organizations, conferences/seminars, and publications on the subject. While this chapter examines the historical, social, cultural, institutional, and economic factors that have contributed to this situation, it also profiles the limited publications in the field, the theoretical and methodological characteristics, its authors, and their location, as well as some of the recent positive developments that make for change. However, while noting the positive signs of change, it is suggested that the future for the sociology of sport in the ESC is rather mixed for its growth will continue to be constrained if traditional thinking towards the study of sport and its funding persist or remain dominant.
The following is a partial abstract, with acknowledgments, of the latest report issued by the Ministry of Health. “This Report,” it is said, “should be of service to public analysts, analytical chemists and all those concerned with the determination of lead in food.” The condensed and valuable review describing methods for the determination of lead in foods, and a general method for the determination of small amounts of lead in food can hardly be abstracted, and we must refer readers to the report itself for the necessary details.
The reliance on teams in today’s work environment underscores the importance of understanding how teams function. To better understand teams, one must be able to measure…
The reliance on teams in today’s work environment underscores the importance of understanding how teams function. To better understand teams, one must be able to measure team dynamics or interaction. The purpose of this chapter is to outline an unobtrusive approach to measuring team dynamics from verbal communications.
The basic premise of this approach is that the words we use provide insight into how we feel and think at any given time. The methodology described in this chapter employs a lexical analytic approach to examining team dynamics. To best accomplish this, we first identify the principal features or dimensions of teamwork and then we propose lexical measures that may map to these processes.
This approach can be employed to track team functioning over time “at a distance” without interrupting task performance.
This chapter describes an approach to measuring relevant teamwork dimensions through verbal content. This approach has the potential to give us direct, unobtrusive insight into the emotional and cognitive states of teams. It is original in its examination of how team dynamics can be indexed in speech.