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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1911

Dr. G. S. Buchanan's Report on the work of the Inspectors of Foods of the Local Government Board for the year 1909–10 is a document dealing with matters of the greatest…

Abstract

Dr. G. S. Buchanan's Report on the work of the Inspectors of Foods of the Local Government Board for the year 1909–10 is a document dealing with matters of the greatest national importance. The Report, which is largely concerned with the results of the examination—under the Public Health (Regulations as to Food) Act of 1907—of the various kinds of meat that are imported into this country from abroad for the purpose of home consumption, is arranged under the following headings:—

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1909

In the Annual Report of the General Purposes Committee of the Middlesex County Council for the year ending March 31, 1909, it is stated that inquiries were made as to the…

Abstract

In the Annual Report of the General Purposes Committee of the Middlesex County Council for the year ending March 31, 1909, it is stated that inquiries were made as to the action taken under the Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milkshops Orders of 1885 and 1899 by the thirty‐six district councils in the county, the object of such action being the detection of cows suffering from tuberculosis of the udder. It might be thought that by this time the necessity for putting these orders into force had been thoroughly proved. The Royal Commission on Tuberculosis made a definite statement to the effect that milk derived from tuberculous cattle is one of the principal causes of tubercular disease in the human subject, and, apparently there seems to be some disposition on the part of local authorities to make tuberculosis notifiable. The Public Health (Tuberculosis) Regulations, 1908, which came into force at the beginning of 1909, require that all cases of pulmonary tuberculosis are to be notified to the sanitary authority if the patients are receiving treatment from the Poor Law medical officers. Large sums are spent every year throughout the country on the upkeep of sanatoria with the object of curing cases of tubercle, if possible, but, in any case, of alleviating the sufferings of those afflicted with tuberculosis. On all sides, in fact, it is now recognised that the most energetic measures are necessary in order to combat this terrible disease. It appears from the figures given in the Report referred to that in twenty‐three out of the thirty‐six districts. “No veterinary examinations of cows were made on behalf of the local authorities!” The statement is not made the subject of comment, but we hardly think that the county authorities can regard the results of their enquiry as satisfactory. The Report was apparently presented to the County Council on July 22 last, so that up to that time, at least, it would seem that these twenty‐three districts, in a county with about one million inhabitants, are governed, so far as sanitary matters go, by people who consider themselves qualified to hold opinions diametrically opposed to those held by experts and based on the best scientific evidence at present available.

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British Food Journal, vol. 11 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

John L. Daniels, Raghuram Cherukuri, Helene A. Hilger, James D. Oliver and Shi Bin

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of a mixture of nutrient solution, bacteria and biofilm on the consolidation, unconfined compression and desiccation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of a mixture of nutrient solution, bacteria and biofilm on the consolidation, unconfined compression and desiccation characteristics of two soils that could be used in waste containment applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental work was conducted to investigate the influence of biofilm on the desiccation, strength and consolidation characteristics of two barrier soils. The soils were evaluated with water alone and with a biofilm solution composed of nutrients, bacteria and exopolymeric substances (EPS). These solutions were mixed with a locally available clay (“red bull tallow” (RBT)) as well as a mix of 65 percent sand and 35 percent bentonite (65‐35 Mix).

Findings

Reductions in strength and increases in ductility are observed with biofilm amendment for two soil types. The shear strength was reduced from 413 to 313 kPa and from 198 to 179 kPa for RBT and 65‐35 Mix, respectively. Desiccation tests reveal an increase in moisture retention for early time increments in amended specimens, while both increases and decreases are noted after extended drying. Increases in the rate of consolidation and modest decreases in the compression and swell index were observed. In particular, the consolidation coefficient was increased from 0.036 to 0.064 cm2/min and from 0.060 to 0.093 cm2/min for RBT and 65‐35 Mix, respectively.

Practical implications

These results are useful in establishing the broader impacts of using biofilm as an additive to increase the performance (e.g. reduce hydraulic conductivity and increase resistance to crack formation) of barrier materials in waste containment applications. Moreover, the data provide insight into the geotechnical implications of biofilm‐producing methanotrophic activity that occurs naturally in the covers of municipal solid waste landfills.

Originality/value

Very little research has been published on the influence of biofilm on the behavior of barrier materials in general, and on geotechnical properties in particular. This paper is unique in making the connection between methanotrophic activity, soil modification and barrier material performance.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1916

Fatigue, occurring in an average healthy individual, under ordinary conditions of life, and while foodstuffs of a very usual character are being ingested, is an indication…

Abstract

Fatigue, occurring in an average healthy individual, under ordinary conditions of life, and while foodstuffs of a very usual character are being ingested, is an indication of an inability on the part of the organism to meet, with sufficient rapidity, the demands of the body created by wear and tear. It is an association of defective oxidation and the undue accumulation of waste products in the tissues and blood, and is in a very large percentage of cases caused solely by a deficiency in the average dietary of to‐day of one or more of those mineral elements which are essential to life. That mineral substances are indispensable to life has been fully demonstrated, for it has been shown that animals fed upon proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, which have been rendered as ash‐free as possible, perish even more rapidly than if they are deprived of food altogether.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1933

With regard to the output of canned food in European Russia, it is stated by Rubinstein that the statistics are not altogether reliable. We conclude therefore that they…

Abstract

With regard to the output of canned food in European Russia, it is stated by Rubinstein that the statistics are not altogether reliable. We conclude therefore that they must be accepted with caution. If the accuracy of statistics in relation to the output of European Russia is questioned, then, we submit, those relating to Asiatic Russia and the Far East will be still more open to challenge. These figures refer to things done! What value in these circumstances must be assigned to estimates of what it is hoped will be done?

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1933

At the invitation of Miss Olga Nethersole, founder and honorary organiser of the People's League of Health, a number of medical and science councillors and official…

Abstract

At the invitation of Miss Olga Nethersole, founder and honorary organiser of the People's League of Health, a number of medical and science councillors and official members of the League met at luncheon at Claridge's Hotel, London, on October 18th, to welcome the members of the newly appointed Veterinary Council. The speeches which followed dealt with the campaign of the League for a safe milk supply, and the part which veterinary science, in conjunction with the other interested professions, might play in attaining the desired end.—Prof. T. J. Mackie, D.P.H., of the Department of Bacteriology, Edinburgh University, said that the formation of the new Veterinary Council was a significant event in the history of the League. It emphasised the absolute necessity of enlisting the co‐operation of the veterinary profession in the campaign for human health. If we were to guard our own health we must pay due respect to the health of our domestic animals, and particularly those from which we received our essential foods, such as milk. It was common knowledge to both the medical and the veterinary profession that our milk supplies, collectively speaking, were not safe, and that, in fact, they might carry a constant menace to the public health. Milk‐borne tuberculosis dominated the whole question of our milk supplies. It must be remembered, however, that tuberculosis was only one of the milk‐borne infections. There were others such as diphtheria, enteric fever, scarlet fever, and undulant fever. Yet there was distinct apathy, and sometimes antipathy, to the simple measures that would regulate this state of affairs. The League were to be congratulated on having performed a valuable public service in their critical survey of the question of bovine tuberculosis, and bringing out in fair relief the essential facts in regard to tuberculosis of animal origin in human beings. Some of the facts in the report could not be too often and strongly repeated. In England and Wales, for instance, it had been shown that every year the bovine type of tuberculosis bacillus caused at least 4,000 new cases of human tuberculosis and at least 2,000 deaths. And seven per cent. of the ordinary samples of vended milk contained this organism. He could speak feelingly, for in Scotland they had rather more than their share of tuberculosis of the bovine type in the human subject. When one reflected on all that had been done in various ways for the improvement of public health, it seemed almost incredible that food was being sold daily with a seven per cent. and sometimes a 14 per cent. chance of it containing a germ capable of producing a crippling or even fatal disease without any warning to the public. If tuberculosis were not an insidious disease, but an explosive epidemic, even if its incidence were not so high, these conditions would not have been tolerated so long as they had been. The veterinary profession recommended the eradication of disease from herds as the fundamental remedy. It was the fundamental remedy, but even the highest grade tubercle‐free milk might carry a very dangerous infection, and, in any case, he did not think the objects which the veterinary profession had at heart, and with which he sympathised, and compulsory or universal pasteurisation on the other hand, were mutually exclusive. He did not see that pasteurisation would set back the clock of progress against the eradication of tuberculosis in the herds. The problem was an urgent one. The eradication of the disease from dairy cattle must proceed slowly and against difficult obstacles, and they could not wait. It was estimated that, if the eradication of tuberculosis were continued at the present rate in this country, it would be 400 years before we reached the stage that had been reached in America. Even if it were expedited, it must remain a relatively slow process. He could not understand those individuals who were content to tolerate the continuance of bovine tuberculosis in the human being in the hope that some day a raw tubercle‐free milk might be universal. Our agricultural and public health organisations were doing the people an injustice in their tacit sanction of the ordinary raw market milk. If they were not prepared to countenance compulsory pasteurisation, at least in the large communities, the only alternative was an official designation of that milk, which would make it clear to the public that it was not free from potential danger. He sometimes wondered what would be the effect of such an official designation if there were displayed in the retail milk shops an official notice stating to the public that such milk was not free from diseases dangerous to human subjects, and that they were warned not to use it without previous sterilisation. He was sure that if that were done the problem would very soon solve itself. Some Local Authorities were pressing hard for powers of compulsory pasteurisation. He thought the League might very well carry on the campaign by educating public opinion and influencing Parliament to that end. If the Government Departments were not willing to move in the matter and take action, then the public must be informed in the clearest possible terms what the position was. The League, in tackling the milk problem by its own methods, had a magnificent opportunity of making a great contribution to the important cause for which it stood.—Professor J. Basil Buxton, of the Institute of Animal Pathology at Cambridge University, said that pasteurisation could not by any means dispense with the necessity for clean milk. They must produce clean milk, however much or however little they might cook it or otherwise treat it afterwards.—Professor Gaiger, President of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, said that they had an enormous job in front of them if they were going to make our milk free from the germ of bovine tuberculosis.—Sir Leonard Hill said that if we could get the people on the right diet we should enormously diminish the amount of disease. Of all the foods milk was one of the most important, and we ought to make the supply safe. Pasteurisation should be made compulsory at once.—Major D. S. Rabagliati, Chief Veterinary Inspector to the County Council of the West Riding of Yorkshire, told the gathering of the important work carried out by his Local Authority, who were the pioneers in the veterinary inspection of cows. He maintained that even if there were compulsory pasteurisation that was no reason why they should not have a clean supply of milk.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 35 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Steven J. Gold and Ivan Light

The basis of ethnic groups' economic status remains among the enduring controversies in both popular and social scientific discussions of inequality. While this debate…

Abstract

The basis of ethnic groups' economic status remains among the enduring controversies in both popular and social scientific discussions of inequality. While this debate commonly opposes cultural attributes to structures of opportunity and disadvantage, we point out that various policies—including banking, public employment, business development programs, and refugee resettlement—have also had important impacts on ethnic economies. Because our definition of the ethnic economy includes both the ethnic-owned economy of the self-employed as well as the ethnic-controlled economy, wherein ethnic networks help locate jobs in non-co-ethnic firms or the public sector, we are able to incorporate a wide range of groups and contexts in our analysis. Our results suggest that the economic status of certain ethnic groups in American society reflects the outcome of specific policies that helped or hindered the growth of their ethnic economies. We conclude that policies, such as public employment, which incorporate various ethnic groups, are a more viable means of nurturing ethnic economic growth than selective programs that benefit some groups while excluding others.

Details

Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-665-7

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2016

Galen T. Trail, Jeffrey D. James, Hyungil Kwon, Dean Anderson and Matthew J. Robinson

– The purpose of this paper is to test Oliver’s two-dimension (fortitude and community/social support) product loyalty framework.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test Oliver’s two-dimension (fortitude and community/social support) product loyalty framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Oliver categorized each of the two dimensions into high and low, creating a two-by-two framework: low fortitude and low-community/social support (Product Superiority group); low fortitude and high-community/social support (Village Envelopment group); high fortitude and low-community/social support (Determined Self-isolation group); high fortitude and high-community/social support (Immersed Self-identity group). The paper uses two samples. The sample from Study 1 was season ticket holders (n=199) of a West Coast (USA) Major League Baseball team. Results indicated preliminary support for Oliver’s four groups and good psychometric properties of the fan community scale and the individual fortitude scale (IFS). Study 2 focussed on attendees (n=458) at two East Coast (USA) Major League Baseball venues.

Findings

The multivariate GLM indicated significant differences among Oliver’s groups, but the variance explained was small on past, current, and future attendance. However, in terms of actual games attended, the Immersed Self-identity group attended between 2.5 and 3 times as many games as the Village Envelopment group over the two years, and more than twice as many games as the Product Superiority group. The groups differed substantially on consumption of product extensions: 22.5 percent of the variance in merchandise purchasing was explained by the grouping, 31.9 percent of broadcast media consumption, and 24.9 percent of print media consumption. In all cases, those in the Immersed Self-identity group consumed significantly more than the Product Superiority and Determined Self-isolation groups.

Originality/value

The paper reveals that sport marketers can focus on the Immersed Self-identity segment as the segment most likely to consume the product, repurchase, and purchase product extensions.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2013

Rui Biscaia, Abel Correia, Masayuki Yoshida, António Rosado and João Marôco

This paper aims to assess service quality in professional football and to examine the effects of service quality and ticket pricing on satisfaction and behavioural…

Abstract

This paper aims to assess service quality in professional football and to examine the effects of service quality and ticket pricing on satisfaction and behavioural intention. Data were collected among football fans and the results of a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the psychometric properties of the service quality model. A structural equation model (SEM) revealed that the service quality construct impacts both satisfaction and behavioural intention. Also, behavioural intention is influenced by ticket pricing and satisfaction. Managerial implications of these results are discussed and guidelines for future research are suggested.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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