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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2021

Sandra Simas Graça, James M. Barry, Virginie P. Kharé and Yuliya Yurova

This paper aims to explore the effects of institutional environments across developed and emerging markets on buyer–supplier cooperation. It empirically examines a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the effects of institutional environments across developed and emerging markets on buyer–supplier cooperation. It empirically examines a Business-to-Business relational exchange model of trust-building, commitment and cooperative behaviors within firms in the USA and countries such as Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC).

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model and accompanying research hypotheses are tested on a sample of buyers from the USA (n = 169), Brazil (n = 110), China (n = 100), Russia (n = 100) and India (n = 100). Structural equation modeling is used to test the relationships in the model.

Findings

Findings suggest that approaches to achieve successful cooperation vary across countries and depend on the interaction between formal and informal institutions present in each country. Results show that buyers from India and China place relatively greater emphasis on conflict resolution and commitment, whereas buyers from Brazil and Russia rely more on trust in their efforts to create cooperative relationships. For US buyers, formality and quality of communication and functional benefits are key factors in fostering trust, commitment and cooperation.

Practical implications

A conceptual framework is advanced that extends traditional westernized and China-only perspectives of relational exchanges to a more universal context. Results suggest that suppliers understand how their buyers’ country-level institutional environment shapes their partnership legitimacy and relational motivations at the transaction level.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine buyer–supplier relational exchanges through the lenses of transaction cost, social exchange and institutional theories using the USA and BRIC nations as proxies for examination of institutional effects.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

James M. Barry and Sandra Simas Graca

The purpose of this research is to show how institutional factors affect buyer–supplier relationships. Specifically, the authors examine a model of relationship quality…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to show how institutional factors affect buyer–supplier relationships. Specifically, the authors examine a model of relationship quality and its antecedents across rule-based, relation-based and family-based governance environments.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model and accompanying research hypotheses are tested on data from a survey of 169 US (rule-based), 110 Brazilian (family-based) and 100 Chinese (relation-based) managers and buyers. Structural equation modeling is used to test the relationship quality framework and the hypothesized moderation of governance environment.

Findings

Results suggest that the informal institutions which shape a nation’s governance environment impact the relationship building process between buyers and suppliers. Communication quality was found to influence relationship quality more in developed economies where relationships are protected and managed under rule-based governance. Interaction frequency was found to be more relevant in emerging market firms characterized by relation-based societies. relationship benefits are applied more to relationships in emerging markets operating under family-based governance. No differences were found across governance environments for the influence that conflict resolution has on relationship quality.

Practical implications

Results provide insight into how the fairness and effectiveness of political and economic institutions surrounding a buyer’s nation of operation impact “rules of the game” differently for developed and emerging market firms.

Originality/value

This study extends research on cross-cultural relationship marketing to more than just communications context and cultural heritage. Results demonstrate that a buyer’s quest for legitimacy impacts its sensitivity to what supplier behaviors matter the most.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Sandra Simas Graca, Patricia M. Doney and James M. Barry

The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategic decision-making process regarding communication flows and trust and their impact on firm cooperation in the context…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategic decision-making process regarding communication flows and trust and their impact on firm cooperation in the context of buyer-supplier relationships in rule-based vs relation-based countries. An institutional view is explored to demonstrate how informal institutions shape a firm’s strategic decision making in the internationalization process.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model and accompanying research hypotheses are tested on data from a survey of 169 US and 110 Brazilian buyers. Structural equation modeling is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Results suggest that the pattern of flows of communication on building trust and increasing strategic cooperation is based upon the governance of the individual’s country of origin. Quality communication is found to have a greater impact on trust in the USA, while two-way communication is the factor with the greatest effect on trust in Brazil. Frequency of communication and socialization are also found to have indirect, but important distinct roles in the flows of communication in both countries. Trust is also found to be a strong predictor of strategic cooperation.

Practical implications

Results provide insight into what patterns of communication flows are most influential in increasing a buyer’s trust in a supplier, so that suppliers can better formulate strategies to enter overseas markets.

Originality/value

This study extends the communication, trust, and cooperation literature to the context of buyer-supplier relationships in distinct county settings. Comparisons are made between one developed country characterized by rule-based governance, with a low-context style of communication and high country trust and one emerging market characterized by relation-based governance, with a high-context style of communication and low country trust.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Sandra S. Graça and James M. Barry

This study investigates the antecedents and outcomes of cognitive trust during the expansion phase in buyer–supplier relationships. It takes a global approach and examines…

Abstract

This study investigates the antecedents and outcomes of cognitive trust during the expansion phase in buyer–supplier relationships. It takes a global approach and examines cultural nuances between developed nation and emerging market firms by including participants from the United States, China, and Brazil. The results demonstrate the importance of trust in building social capital and the central role which trust plays in shaping business relationships in all studied cultural contexts. There are similarities and differences across countries. Results support relationship marketing theory by demonstrating the importance of conflict resolution, communication frequency, and social bond in building buyer–supplier relationships in the United States, which in turn increase cooperation between partners. Results also indicate that in China, social bond plays a much greater role in building trust, which in turn increases cooperation only to the extent that it serves as a mechanism to secure committed relationships. In Brazil, results show that conflict resolution is the most important factor in building trust. It also mediates the relationship between communication frequency and trust, as well as drives cooperation positively. Overall, trust is found to influence exchange of confidential communication and increases commitment between partners in all three countries.

Details

New Insights on Trust in Business-to-Business Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-063-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1909

It is a matter of common knowledge that beer, in its several varieties, is by no means the same thing to‐day as it was a generation or less ago; the progress of chemical…

Abstract

It is a matter of common knowledge that beer, in its several varieties, is by no means the same thing to‐day as it was a generation or less ago; the progress of chemical and biological knowledge on the one hand, and the keenness of competition on the other, have led to great alterations both in the materials used in its production and the methods by which it is produced. Exact or reliable knowledge about this, however, is far from being common; vehement assertions are made that all or almost all the changes are for the better, and also that beer is now a manufactured chemical product of deleterious nature, in which little or nothing of genuine material is used. Such statements are rendered unacceptable by the existence of self‐interest on one side and prejudice on the other. A short account of some of the facts concerned may, therefore, be of service.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Douglas M. Ihrke

This article was written to encourage scholars to not forget to include the power of hierarchy in their studies of leadership in public sector organizations. Contemporary…

Abstract

This article was written to encourage scholars to not forget to include the power of hierarchy in their studies of leadership in public sector organizations. Contemporary theories of leadership too often assume that hierarchy will wither away once the leader imposes his or her will on the organization, an assumption that does not seem to work in reality given the bureaucratic nature of public organizations. Instead it is argued that we can learn about public sector leadership needs by remembering the power of hierarchy and what it demands in terms of leadership from different levels in the organization. The article concludes with speculation as to how future research on leadership might be directed with hierarchy in mind.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1934

THE most important personal news of the month is the appointment of Mr. J. D. Cowley M.A., the County Librarian of Lancashire, as Director of the University of London…

Abstract

THE most important personal news of the month is the appointment of Mr. J. D. Cowley M.A., the County Librarian of Lancashire, as Director of the University of London School of Librarianship. This had been expected for some considerable time, but we were unable to comment until it had been confirmed in the middle of May by the Senate of the University. Mr. Cowley will bring to the office the culture which we know him to possess, experience in the library of a learned society, and the much wider public experience which he has gained in Lancashire. A quiet enthusiast, with a sympathetic and friendly manner, his achievements in librarianship have already been such as to make our hopes for his future most sanguine. We all like him, which is one of the best foundations for his success. The Library Association Record has expressed the general hope that he will be able to make such arrangements in the School that its students may be more acceptable than they have been hitherto in public libraries. One of the methods by which this can be accomplished is extremely simple in statement, although it may be somewhat difficult of realisation. The larger libraries should be induced to recruit their assistants in the ordinary manner, to retain them on the staff for two years with ample opportunities for gaining practical experience in more than merely mechanical operations, and should then send the best of them for two years to the School of Librarianship. During their absence the libraries would of course recruit other assistants to supply their place, who in turn, if satisfactory, should be sent to the School of Librarian‐ship, and those who have been at the School should return in their places. There would, of course, have to be two vacancies to start from, but in a large system that is a very small matter. In the way suggested the libraries would be acquiring staffs which were practically trained in the first place and would understand everything that was being taught at the School, and who, in addition, would have university training and the status which undoubtedly belongs to that. If it could only be made clear to the assistant librarians of the present day that university school pupils would not displace them, we think one of the objections to the School would have passed. At present, of course, the objection is deeper; it is the chief librarian who seems to avoid the school diplomate. On the other hand, there is the suggestion that anyone who has passed through the School is ipso facto a librarian and should have a high position; that, of course, is not so. Ultimately he may have, but school training is only preliminary to library experience, and more is required before a librarian can have a responsible post in a library of any consequence. We hope the point we have raised will have the consideration which we believe it deserves.

Details

New Library World, vol. 36 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1973

EUGENE W. RATSOY

Recent studies of bureaucracy and decision making in education using differing methodologies and populations are, the writer claims, pointing to generalizations which are…

Abstract

Recent studies of bureaucracy and decision making in education using differing methodologies and populations are, the writer claims, pointing to generalizations which are largely supportive of each other. An important question only partly answered is whether the relationships identified as between the bureaucratic variables and situational and personal variables examined are causal. Caution should therefore be exercised in drawing implications for practice. Nevertheless, on the basis of overall consistency in the findings, the writer proposes that moves toward participative management approaches and away from rigid hierarchical organization of schools should lead to positive consequences such as improved supervisor effectiveness, greater teacher satisfaction, a decrease in student alienation, and improved student achievement.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1964

A.J. James and Principal

IN December 1961, an article appeared in TECHNICAL EDUCATION entitled “The New Burnham Technical Scales”. This discussion of the then new scales included the statement:

Abstract

IN December 1961, an article appeared in TECHNICAL EDUCATION entitled “The New Burnham Technical Scales”. This discussion of the then new scales included the statement:

Details

Education + Training, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1909

The importance of sanitary conditions in the production, manufacture, and distribution of foods was never greater than to‐day, for less of the food consumed by the…

Abstract

The importance of sanitary conditions in the production, manufacture, and distribution of foods was never greater than to‐day, for less of the food consumed by the individual is produced and prepared at home than ever before; and likewise, the necessity for sanitary laws in regard to foods was never more keenly realised. The disclosures of the insanitary conditions in our packing houses, exaggerated in many instances, has aroused public indignation. The newspapers added fuel to the flame by rehashing every case in recent history containing anything gruesome or revolting in connection with the preparation of food products. These reports, appearing day after day in the newspapers, gave the public the false impression that the manufacture of human bodies into food products was a matter of not uncommon occurrence, and that insanitary conditions prevailed in the manufacture of most foods. The discussion was continued until not only this country, but Europe, looked with suspicion on the food products of the United States.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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