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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

Ahmad Jamal and Adegboyega Adelowore

Many have applied the concept of congruence or fit in the context of person‐organization, person‐environment and person‐person relationships and interactions. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Many have applied the concept of congruence or fit in the context of person‐organization, person‐environment and person‐person relationships and interactions. However, despite the significance of customer‐employee interactions and relations in a services context, no research has investigated the effects of congruence between a customer's self‐concept and employee‐image on important relational outcomes such as relationship satisfaction, loyalty to employees and satisfaction towards service provider. The paper aims to fill this gap in the literature and to investigate the effects of self‐employee congruence on customer satisfaction via the mediating effects of personal interaction, relationship satisfaction and loyalty to employees. The paper also seeks to investigate the links among personal interaction, relationship satisfaction and loyalty towards employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a causal modelling approach and proposes a conceptual model after an extensive review of the literature related to consumer behaviour, organizational behaviour, relationship marketing and services marketing. The paper is based on a sample of 203 customers of bank users in Nigeria who completed a self‐administered questionnaire. The paper uses confirmatory factor analysis and SEM to analyse and confirm the conceptual model proposed in this research.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that self‐employee congruence is an important antecedent of personal interaction, relationship satisfaction and loyalty to employees each of which is in turn positively linked to customer satisfaction towards the service provider.

Research limitations/implications

The paper discusses implications for service marketers and for retail banking sector and highlights the significance of self‐employee congruence for service design and delivery, advertising strategies and suggests future research directions.

Originality/value

The paper is first of its kind to discuss the effects of perceived similarities between customers and employees on some important relational constructs such as personal interaction, relationship satisfaction, loyalty towards employees and towards customer satisfaction.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Ahmad Jamal and Kyriaki Anastasiadou

Very little research has investigated the effects of service quality dimensions on customer loyalty. Also, up to now, no research has investigated the direct effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

Very little research has investigated the effects of service quality dimensions on customer loyalty. Also, up to now, no research has investigated the direct effect of expertise on loyalty and the moderating effect of expertise on the link between satisfaction and loyalty. This paper seeks to fill these gaps in the literature and to investigate the effects of individual dimensions of service quality in creating and enhancing customer loyalty via customer satisfaction. It also aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of customer expertise on customer loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a causal modelling approach and proposes a conceptual model after an extensive review of the literature. The paper is based on a sample of 200 bank users in Greece who completed a self‐administered questionnaire. The paper uses exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling to analyse and confirm the conceptual model proposed in this research.

Findings

The paper finds that reliability, tangibility and empathy are positively related to customer satisfaction, which in turn is positively related to loyalty. Furthermore, while expertise is negatively related to loyalty, it positively moderates the link between satisfaction and loyalty.

Originality/value

The paper discusses implications for brand managers in terms of targeting and advertising strategies and suggests future research directions.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 43 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Said Echchakoui

Drawing on socioanalytic theory, this paper aims to explore whether a moderation mediation model can describe the mechanism linking salesperson social reputation…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on socioanalytic theory, this paper aims to explore whether a moderation mediation model can describe the mechanism linking salesperson social reputation (perceived stability and plasticity) and performance (customer share of wallet) in relationship marketing. The mediator is the salesperson’s overall equity, and the moderator is the salesperson-customer congruence.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 233 customers, served by 44 personal finance advisors at five banking agencies in Canada.

Findings

A multilevel approach showed that both perceived stability and perceived plasticity predict salesperson equity and performance. In addition, the empirical results indicated that the relationship between perceived stability and salesperson performance is partially mediated by salesperson overall equity. However, equity fully mediated the relationship between perceived plasticity and salesperson performance. Finally, the salesperson-customer congruence moderated the effect of both perceived stability and plastic on the salesperson overall equity.

Research limitations/implications

This research suggests that the moderation mediation model enables predicting the relationship between the perceived personality and performance. From a managerial perspective, the author encourages sales managers to pay attention to salespersons’ equity development as well as their performance. Notably, the author suggests that sales managers support and monitor salespeople with regard to improving their social status as well as their social popularity in their interactions with customers.

Originality/value

Previous research in sales force literature focuses on salespersons’ self-personality to predict sales performance. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first to show it is important to consider the perceived personality of a salesperson in predicting their performance. This study is also the first to introduce the salesperson reputation concept and its dimensions (perceived stability and plasticity).

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Angelina Nhat Hanh Le, Julian Ming Sung Cheng, Hadi Kuntjara and Christy Ting-Jun Lin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating roles of brand name attitude and product expertise on the impact of different corporate rebranding strategies on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating roles of brand name attitude and product expertise on the impact of different corporate rebranding strategies on consumer brand preference. Rebranding strategies include evolutionary and revolutionary rebranding strategies, while brand name attitude is consumer attitude towards a firm's original brand name and consumer product expertise refers to the consumer knowledge related to the brand's product or service.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2×2 factorial experimental design is used to examine the proposed hypotheses. In total, 220 undergraduates from a public university in Taipei of Taiwan participate in the experiment.

Findings

The findings indicate that given brand repositioning is preferable, the use of evolutionary rebranding strategies is superior in enhancing consumer brand preference in the case of pleasant original brand name attitude, while the use of revolutionary strategies is superior when consumers hold less pleasant attitude. In addition, expert consumers show similar responses towards the two rebranding strategies, whereas evolutionary strategies seem to be more effective than revolutionary ones in enhancing consumer brand preferences in the case of novice consumers.

Research limitations/implications

A convenient sampling method was employed and undergraduate students were the research subjects. Besides, a fictitious brand was used in the experiment design. As a result, the generalisability and applicability of the current research findings should be considered and carried out with cautions.

Practical implications

The findings of the research provide empirical understanding on the use of rebranding strategies to generate higher levels of brand preference under contingencies, thus helping brand managers apply a more appropriate type of rebranding strategies when necessary.

Originality/value

The current study is the preliminary causal-oriented work to provide guidance with appropriate rebranding strategies under the contingencies of consumers’ original brand name attitude and product expertise.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2016

Soon-Ho Kim, Min-Seong Kim and Dong Hun Lee

Coffee shops are becoming more aware that brand loyalty can be an effective strategy for securing a competitive edge in business. To supplement current understanding of…

Abstract

Coffee shops are becoming more aware that brand loyalty can be an effective strategy for securing a competitive edge in business. To supplement current understanding of the importance of coffee shop branding, this study investigates the role of personality traits and congruity in the formation of brand loyalty. This study finds that personality traits have direct effects on congruity and customer satisfaction, the two defining factors of brand loyalty. Overall, our results suggest that the interaction of personality traits, congruity, and satisfaction is essential to the process of influencing coffee shop customers’ brand loyalty.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-615-4

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Hameedah Sayani

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of consumer loyalty in Islamic and conventional banks in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study has relevance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of consumer loyalty in Islamic and conventional banks in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study has relevance and importance in a country with a dual banking system. Since the products and services offered by the banks are largely homogenous, customer loyalty is mostly associated with the quality of certain tangible and intangible dimensions of service. It is important for the banks to understand the factors that lead to higher satisfaction and subsequent loyalty among consumers in the context of the UAE.

Design/methodology/approach

More than 300 respondents were surveyed to understand the factors that lead to continuing a relationship with Islamic and conventional banks. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and stepwise regression.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate that Islamic banks’ customers are satisfied with the Shariah Advisory Board, convenience-related factors such as number of branches, and efficiency-related factors like handling issues on the phone. However, an inverse relationship is found between advice by the personnel and length of association with the bank. On the other hand, the importance of reputation and efficient handling of issues on the phone is highlighted with respect to conventional banks.

Research limitations/implications

The study focusses only on consumers that bank either with Islamic or conventional banks and excludes those who deal with both Islamic and conventional banks simultaneously.

Practical implications

The research has several managerial implications, as the findings of the study not only highlight the factors that banking consumers value the most in the UAE banking sector, but also provide insight into the factors which need immediate attention. These decisions have strategic and resource-related implications for banks. This knowledge will allow banks to align services with their long-term objectives and invest into resources and capabilities that will provide them competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The study allows identification of factors that are valued the most by banking consumers in a culturally and religiously diverse country with a dual banking system.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2018

Teck Ming Tan, Jari Salo, Jouni Juntunen and Ashish Kumar

The study aims to investigate the psychological mechanism that motivates consumers to pay more for a preferred brand that reflects their actual or ideal self-concept, by…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the psychological mechanism that motivates consumers to pay more for a preferred brand that reflects their actual or ideal self-concept, by examining the shift in attention between consumer’s present, future, and past moments.

Design/methodology/approach

First, in a survey setting, the study identifies the relationship between temporal focus and self-congruence. Subsequently, we conduct three experiments to capture the effects of temporal focus on brand preference and willingness to pay (WTP). In these experiments, we manipulate consumers’ self-congruence and temporal focus.

Findings

The findings show that consumers with a present focus (distant future and distant past foci) tend to evaluate a brand more preferably when the brand serves to reflect their actual (ideal) selves. However, in the absence of present focus consumers’ WTP is more for a brand that reflects their ideal selves.

Research limitations/implications

The study does not have an actual measure on consumers’ WTP; instead we use single-item measure.

Practical implications

This study sheds new light on branding strategy. The results suggest that authentic and aspirational branding strategies are relevant to publicly consumed products. Brand managers could incorporate consumers’ temporal focus into branding strategy that could significantly influence consumer preference and WTP for their brands.

Originality/value

This study expands our understanding of brand usage imagery congruity by showing that temporal focus is an important determinant of self-congruence. In this regard, this study empirically investigates the relationship of temporal focus, self-congruence, brand preference, and WTP. It further reveals that mere brand preference does not necessarily lead consumers to pay more for symbolic brands.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1991

Taqi N. Al‐Faraj, Jamal A. Al‐Zayer and Abdulaziz S. Alidi

In this article, a PC‐based spreadsheet support system (SSS) forcontrolling inventory and service level for the newsboy problem isdeveloped utilising Lotus 1‐2‐3…

Abstract

In this article, a PC‐based spreadsheet support system (SSS) for controlling inventory and service level for the newsboy problem is developed utilising Lotus 1‐2‐3 spreadsheet capabilities. The technical aspects of the SSS are presented and discussed within the context of a numerical example. The developed SSS permits the decision maker to simulate and analyse the impact of parameter changes on the inventory system using a familiar PC spreadsheet package.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 11 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Kun‐ho Lee and Shakir Ullah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the different motivational factors that lead to customers' Islamic bank selection decision in Pakistan. In particular, it aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the different motivational factors that lead to customers' Islamic bank selection decision in Pakistan. In particular, it aims to look into the importance of Shari'a compliance for Islamic banks' customers and thereby the potential risk of deposits withdrawal in case of violations of Shari'a principles.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents descriptive statistics and cross‐tabulation analysis based on data collected from 357 customers.

Findings

The findings reveal that Islamic banks' customers highly value Shari'a compliance in their banks and that non‐compliance with Shari'a principles leads to disgruntled customers. An interesting pronouncement is that if an Islamic bank is involved in repeated violations of Shari'a, the customers are inclined to switch their banks. Nonetheless, the findings reveal that Shari'a compliance is not the only satisfaction yardstick for Islamic banks' customers; they also expect their banks to be convenient, technologically advanced and provide security of their capital.

Practical implications

The paper has profound implications for Islamic financial institutions operating in Pakistan. Although Shari'a compliance is the most important factor that Islamic banks need to observe, they also need to be competitive with conventional banks.

Originality/value

The paper is a unique contribution to Islamic banks' selection criteria where the importance of Shari'a compliance and conventional bank patronage factors has been explored. The paper's has practical implications for Islamic banks' owners and regulators.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Ahmad Jamal and Mark M.H. Goode

Previous research indicates that the self‐image product image congruity (commonly known as self‐image congruence) can affect consumers’ product preferences and their…

Abstract

Previous research indicates that the self‐image product image congruity (commonly known as self‐image congruence) can affect consumers’ product preferences and their purchase intentions. Self‐image congruence can also facilitate positive behaviour and attitudes toward products. This paper reports findings from a research study which was conducted to determine the effect of self‐image congruity on brand preference and satisfaction in the precious jewellery market in the UK. A questionnaire was sent to 500 consumers of precious jewellery in five major cities of the UK. Results indicate that self‐image congruity was a very strong predictor of consumers’ brand preferences and a good predictor of consumer satisfaction. Respondents with higher levels of self‐image congruity were more likely to prefer the brand and enjoy higher levels of satisfaction with the brand as compared to those with lower levels of self‐image congruity. The paper discusses the implications for brand managers so that they can position their brands in an effective way.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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