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Article
Publication date: 14 February 2022

Young-Min Kwon, Sung-Boo Hong, Jae-Sang Park and Yu-Been Lee

The purpose of this study is to use the individual blade pitch control (IBC), reduce actively both the rotor hub vibratory loads and airframe vibration responses for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to use the individual blade pitch control (IBC), reduce actively both the rotor hub vibratory loads and airframe vibration responses for the lift-offset compound helicopter at a high-speed flight condition.

Design/methodology/approach

The Sikorsky X2 technology demonstrator (X2TD) is used as the lift-offset compound helicopter. The X2TD lift-offset rotor is modelled and its rotor hub vibratory loads at a flight speed of 250 knots are predicted using a rotorcraft comprehensive analysis code, CAMRAD II, and the airframe structural dynamics is represented with a finite element analysis code, MSC.NASTRAN. When the propulsive trim methodology is applied for rotor trim, the best input condition for IBC using multiple harmonic inputs is searched to reduce the rotor vibration, while the rotor aerodynamic performance (the rotor effective lift-to-drag ratio) is improved or maintained at least. Finally, the reduction in airframe vibration responses is investigated when the best input condition for IBC with multiple harmonics is applied to the lift-offset rotor.

Findings

When the IBC with the single harmonic input using the 2/rev actuation frequency, amplitude of 2° and control phase angle of 120° (2P/2°/120°) is considered for X2TD rotor, the rotor vibration is reduced by about 26.37% only and the rotor effective lift-to-drag ratio increases slightly by 0.98%. When X2TD rotor uses the IBC with multiple harmonic inputs (2P/2°/45° + 5P/1°/90°), the rotor hub vibratory loads and airframe vibration responses are reduced by 44.69% and from 0.48 to 79.10%, respectively, while rotor effective lift-to-drag ratio is improved by 0.77%, as compared to the baseline without IBC.

Originality/value

This study is the first study to use the 2/rev actuation for IBC to the four-bladed lift-offset coaxial rotor and to investigate to obtain simultaneously the rotor vibration reduction, rotor performance improvement and airframe vibration reduction, using IBC with multiple harmonic inputs.

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Jae-Sang Park and Young Jung Kee

This paper aims to compare the comprehensive rotorcraft analyses using the two different blade section property data sets for the blade natural frequencies, airloads…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare the comprehensive rotorcraft analyses using the two different blade section property data sets for the blade natural frequencies, airloads, elastic deformations, the trimmed rotor pitch control angles and the blade structural loads of a small-scale model rotor in a blade vortex interaction (BVI) phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

The two different blade section property data sets for the first Higher-harmonic control Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART-I) are considered for the present rotor aeromechanics analyses. One is the blade property data set using the predicted values which is one of the estimated data sets used for the previous validation works. The other data set uses the measured values for an uninstrumented blade. A comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code, CAMRAD II (comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics II), is used to predict the rotor aeromechanics such as the blade natural frequencies, airloads, elastic deformations, the trimmed rotor pitch control angles and the blade structural loads for the three test cases with and without higher-harmonic control pitch inputs. In CAMRAD II modelling with the two different blade property data sets, the blade is represented as a geometrically nonlinear elastic beam, and the multiple-trailer wake with consolidation model is used to consider more elaborately the BVI effect in low-speed descending flight. The aeromechanics analysis result sets using the two different blade section property data sets are compared with each other as well as are correlated with the wind-tunnel test data.

Findings

The predicted blade natural frequencies using the two different blade section property data sets at non-rotating condition are quite similar to each other except for the natural frequency in the fourth flap mode. However, the natural frequencies using the predicted blade properties at nominal rotating condition are lower than those with the measured blade properties except for the second lead-lag frequency. The trimmed collective pitch control angle with the predicted blade properties is higher than both the wind-tunnel test data and the result using the measured blade properties in all the three test cases. The two different blade property data sets both give reasonable predictions on the blade section normal forces with BVI in the three test cases, and the two analysis results are reasonably similar to each other. The blade elastic deformations at the tip using the measured blade properties are correlated more closely with the wind-tunnel test data than those using the predicted blade properties in most correlation examples. In addition, the predictions of blade structural loads can be slightly or moderately improved by using the measured blade properties particularly for the oscillatory flap bending moments. Finally, the movement of the sectional centre of gravity location of the uninstrumented blade has a moderate influence on the blade elastic twist at the tip in the baseline case and the oscillatory flap bending moment in the minimum noise case.

Practical implications

The present comparison study on rotor aeromechanics analyses using the two different blade property data sets will show the influence of blade section properties on rotor aeromechanics analysis.

Originality/value

This paper is the first attempt to compare the aeromechanics analysis results using the two different blade section property data sets for all three test cases (baseline, minimum noise and minimum vibration) of HART-I in low-speed descending flight.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 88 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Chang-Hoon Sim, Han-Il Kim, Jae-Sang Park and Keejoo Lee

The purpose of this paper is to derive knockdown factor functions in terms of a shell thickness ratio (i.e. the ratio of radius to thickness) for conventional orthogrid…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to derive knockdown factor functions in terms of a shell thickness ratio (i.e. the ratio of radius to thickness) for conventional orthogrid and hybrid-grid stiffened cylinders for the lightweight design of space launch vehicles.

Design/methodology/approach

The shell knockdown factors of grid-stiffened cylinders under axial compressive loads are derived numerically considering various shell thickness ratios. Two grid systems using stiffeners – conventional orthogrid and hybrid-grid systems – are used for the grid-stiffened cylinders. The hybrid-grid stiffened cylinder uses major and minor stiffeners having two different cross-sectional areas. For modeling grid-stiffened cylinders with various thickness ratios, the effective thickness (teff) of the cylinders is kept constant, and the radius of the cylinder is varied. Thickness ratios of 100, 192 and 300 are considered for the orthogrid stiffened cylinder, and 100, 160, 200 and 300 for the hybrid-grid stiffened cylinder. Postbuckling analyses of grid-stiffened cylinders are conducted using a commercial nonlinear finite element analysis code, ABAQUS, to derive the shell knockdown factor. The single perturbation load approach is applied to represent the geometrical initial imperfection of a cylinder. Knockdown factors are derived for both the conventional orthogrid and hybrid-grid stiffened cylinders for different shell thickness ratios. Knockdown factor functions in terms of shell thickness ratio are obtained by curve fitting with the derived shell knockdown factors for the two grid-stiffened cylinders.

Findings

For the two grid-stiffened cylinders, the derived shell knockdown factors are all higher than the previous NASA’s shell knockdown factors for various shell thickness ratios, ranging from 100 to 400. Therefore, the shell knockdown factors derived in this study may facilitate in the development of lightweight structures of space launch vehicles from the aspect of buckling design. For different shell thickness ratios of up to 500, the knockdown factor of the hybrid-grid stiffened cylinder is higher than that of the conventional orthogrid stiffened cylinder. Therefore, it is concluded that the hybrid-grid stiffened cylinder is more efficient than the conventional orthogrid-stiffened cylinder from the perspective of buckling design.

Practical implications

The obtained knockdown factor functions may provide the design criteria for lightweight cylindrical structures of space launch vehicles.

Originality/value

Derivation of shell knockdown factors of hybrid-grid stiffened cylinders considering various shell thickness ratios is attempted for the first time in this study.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 December 2020

Nnamdi O. Madichie

This study aims to highlight a series of accidents epitomized by the success of a music artist, bringing three streams of literature together – pop culture…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to highlight a series of accidents epitomized by the success of a music artist, bringing three streams of literature together – pop culture, entrepreneurship and place branding.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an illustrative case of a 2012 YouTube hit song, Oppan Gangnam Style, by Korean artist Park Jae-Sang, the artist’s attempt to lampoon the extravagant lifestyle of Gangnam District’s residents accidentally puts them on the global map. The narrative is built around the storytelling approach.

Findings

The study highlights the intersections of pop culture creativity and entrepreneurship (albeit accidental) with implications for place branding.

Research limitations/implications

The study is overtly documentary analysis-based and could, therefore be subjected to quantitative analysis in future research. Furthermore, the conceptual model could be tested with additional cases in the future.

Originality/value

In a broad sense, this study is a pioneering effort in the field of entrepreneurship and its interconnections with other disciplines – marketing (place and entrepreneurship) and pop culture. The conceptual model could form a basis for future research in such intersections.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Jae-Sang Park

This paper aims to correlate the flexible multibody analysis for the performance, blade airloads, rotor pitch control angles, and blade structural loads of a full-scale…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to correlate the flexible multibody analysis for the performance, blade airloads, rotor pitch control angles, and blade structural loads of a full-scale utility helicopter rotor in low-speed forward flight with wind tunnel test and flight test data.

Design/methodology/approach

A nonlinear flexible multibody dynamics analysis code, DYMORE, is used to analyze the performance and aeromechanics of a utility helicopter rotor in low-speed forward flight. The main rotor system is modeled using various multibody elements such as rigid bodies, nonlinear elastic beams, mechanical joints, and elastic springs/dampers. The freewake model is used to capture rotor wakes more elaborately in low-speed forward flight.

Findings

Fair to good correlations of rotor performance such as figure of merit in hover, rotor power, propulsive force, and lift in low-speed forward flight are achieved with sweeps of the thrust, rotor shaft tilting angle, and advance ratio, against wind tunnel test data. The blade section normal forces from the mid-span to outboard are fairly or well correlated with flight test data, but the normal force at the inboard blade station is under-predicted. The trimmed pitch control angles are reasonably predicted; however, the lateral cyclic pitch control angle is moderately under-predicted. The flap bending moments are compared fairly with measurements; however, the oscillations of the lead-lag bending and torsion moments are not captured well.

Practical implications

Reasonable predictions of the performance and aeromechanics of the rotor in low-speed forward flight will allow the flexible multibody dynamics to be used for the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis, in place of expensive flight and wind tunnel tests of the rotor.

Originality/value

Up to now, the stand-alone flexible multibody dynamics without the aid of external aerodynamic analysis has not been widely used for the analyses of rotor performance and aeromechanics in low-speed forward flight. However, the present flexible multibody dynamics analysis directly integrated with the freewake model gives fair to good correlation of the rotor performance and aeromechanics predictions in low-speed forward flight.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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