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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Johann C.K.H. Riedel, Jacqueline Lewis and Kulwant Pawar

The research reported here derives from a recently completedquestionnaire survey of the UK mechanical engineering industry and aseries of follow‐up case studies. The case…

Abstract

The research reported here derives from a recently completed questionnaire survey of the UK mechanical engineering industry and a series of follow‐up case studies. The case studies investigated the product design strategies adopted by firms for achieving competitive edge. It was found that companies were consolidating their product ranges and increasing the use of bought‐out components. There had thus been a shift from internal manufacturing (hierarchy) to bought‐out manufacturing (market). This was complemented by the changes, over the last few years, in the production system. That is, the adoption of manufacturing, or FMS, cells. Here, companies were feeding more components through these machining cells rather than using other, more expensive, manufacturing techniques, such as die casting. Thus, product design has had to match these changes in manufacturing strategy. Increased competition from Japan had also led companies to reduce lead times on product introduction. The research identifies the product design strategies the firms had adopted to achieve competitive edge. These were the better management of the product design process through project teams or project management. The use of design reviews for tailoring designs for efficient manufacture and early consideration of manufacturability. The full utilization of prototypes to eliminate production difficulties. These management factors and the ability to use CAD/CAM‐FMS technology enabled the companies to maintain competitive edge.

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Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Abstract

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Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

PETER BETTESS and JACQUELINE A. BETTESS

Survey of period infinite element developments The first infinite elements for periodic wave problems, as stated in Part 1, were developed by Bettess and Zienkiewicz, the…

Abstract

Survey of period infinite element developments The first infinite elements for periodic wave problems, as stated in Part 1, were developed by Bettess and Zienkiewicz, the earliest publication being in 1975. These applications were of ‘decay function’ type elements and were used in surface waves on water problems. This was soon followed by an application by Saini et al., to dam‐reservoir interaction, where the waves are pressure waves in the water in the reservoir. In this case both the solid displacements and the fluid pressures are complex valued. In 1980 to 1983 Medina and co‐workers and Chow and Smith successfully used quite different methods to develop infinite elements for elastic waves. Zienkiewicz et al. published the details of the first mapped wave infinite element formulation, which they went on to program, and to use to generate results for surface wave problems. In 1982 Aggarwal et al. used infinite elements in fluid‐structure interaction problems, in this case plates vibrating in an unbounded fluid. In 1983 Corzani used infinite elements for electric wave problems. This period also saw the first infinite element applications in acoustics, by Astley and Eversman, and their development of the ‘wave envelope’ concept. Kagawa applied periodic infinite wave elements to Helmholtz equation in electromagnetic applications. Pos used infinite elements to model wave diffraction by breakwaters and gave comparisons with laboratory photogrammetric measurements of waves. Good agreement was obtained. Huang also used infinite elements for surface wave diffraction problems. Davies and Rahman used infinite elements to model wave guide behaviour. Moriya developed a new type of infinite element for Helmholtz problem. In 1986 Yamabuchi et al. developed another infinite element for unbounded Helmholtz problems. Rajapalakse et al. produced an infinite element for elastodynamics, in which some of the integrations are carried out analytically, and which is said to model correctly both body and Rayleigh waves. Imai et al. gave further applications of infinite elements to wave diffraction, fluid‐structure interaction and wave force calculations for breakwaters, offshore platforms and a floating rectangular caisson. Pantic et al. used infinite elements in wave guide computations. In 1986 Cao et al. applied infinite elements to dynamic interaction of soil and pile. The infinite element is said to be ‘semi‐analytical’. Goransson and Davidsson used a mapped wave infinite element in some three dimensional acoustic problems, in 1987. They incorporated the infinite elements into the ASKA code. A novel application of wave infinite elements to photolithography simulation for semiconductor device fabrication was given by Matsuzawa et al. They obtained ‘reasonably good’ agreement with observed photoresist profiles. Häggblad and Nordgren used infinite elements in a dynamic analysis of non‐linear soil‐structure interaction, with plastic soil elements. In 1989 Lau and Ji published a new type of 3‐D infinite element for wave diffraction problems. They gave good results for problems of waves diffracted by a cylinder and various three dimensional structures.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Jacqueline Garner, Taek-yul Kim and Won Yong Kim

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of research on board size, structure, and independence. The paper also reviews research on director voting, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review of research on board size, structure, and independence. The paper also reviews research on director voting, and discusses recent work on “busy” directors and board diversity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors limited the review to a focused set of research areas.

Findings

The authors summarize the research on boards of directors and note that research on this important topic should continue.

Originality/value

This review is intended to summarize the literature on boards of directors.

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Managerial Finance, vol. 43 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2007

Jacqueline Scott and Jane Nolan

This editorial aims to explore some of the reasons why women and men do not experience the revolutionary forces of new technologies in the same way.

Abstract

Purpose

This editorial aims to explore some of the reasons why women and men do not experience the revolutionary forces of new technologies in the same way.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews a series of research and conceptual papers which were first presented at a seminar at the University of Cambridge organised by the Economic and Social Research Council's Gender Equality Network

Findings

Taken together, the papers show the dynamic interdependence of work undertaken in both the public and private spheres and the role of different forms of new technologies in influencing inequalities in the division of labour

Originality/value

The collection of papers is probably unique in that its focus is not just on paid work but also on the implications of technological change for gender equality in domestic labour.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2009

Jacqueline Scott

Abstract

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Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Jacqueline Eggenschwiler

Against the background of two decades of debates about responsible behaviour in cyberspace, this paper aims to examine the contributions of non-state actors to processes…

Abstract

Purpose

Against the background of two decades of debates about responsible behaviour in cyberspace, this paper aims to examine the contributions of non-state actors to processes of cybersecurity norm-making. Specifically, it intends to dissect and critically appraise the work of the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace (GCSC), a multistakeholder consortium composed of 28 regionally-diverse scholars, CEOs and (former) policymakers. Inaugurated at the margins of the 2017 Munich Security Conference, the GCSC has been fairly active with regard to developing proposals for norms and policies to enhance international security and stability and guiding responsible conduct in the virtual realm.

Design/methodology/approach

With a view to engaging in a differentiated analysis of the Commission’s activities, this paper asks: How do non-state actors such as the GCSC contribute to processes of cybersecurity norm-making, i.e. what are their roles and responsibilities, and how effective is their engagement? Since the end of the Cold War, non- state actors have become an issue of great interest to scholars of International Relations and International Law. However, in the context of cybersecurity, their normative engagement has not been scrutinised extensively. This paper seeks to address this gap.

Findings

Based on a review of secondary literature and case materials, this paper finds that, within a relatively short period of time, the GCSC has managed to exert discernible discursive and political influence over discussions on responsible behaviour in cyberspace and deserves recognition as a shaper of transnational cybersecurity governance. However, while fairly successful across the dimensions of output and outcome, the Commission has struggled to effect far-reaching systemic change (impact).

Originality/value

In light of significant contestation and fleeting governmental appetite for enacting red lines in the virtual realm, this paper seeks to critically appraise the contributions of non-state actors to processes of cybersecurity norm-making. The motivation to do so stems from two sources: empirical observations that non-state protagonists have become more involved in issues concerning responsible conduct in cyberspace, and realisations that, so far, academic research has offered little examination of their ideational engagement. Exploring the case of the GCSC, this paper argues that non-state actors have to be taken seriously as normative change agents in cybersecurity governance-related contexts.

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Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Ilan Kelman and J.C. Gaillard

Ever since human society developed, environmental and social changes have led to major challenges that must be dealt with. Some of these major challenges are seen as…

Abstract

Ever since human society developed, environmental and social changes have led to major challenges that must be dealt with. Some of these major challenges are seen as “disasters,” for which a definition that is frequently used is similar to “A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources” (UNISDR, 2004; see, e.g., Quarantelli, 1998, and Furedi, 2007, for discussions on the meaning(s) of “disaster”). From witnessing disasters and being forced to work through the aftermath, humanity has been shifting toward trying to reduce disasters’ impacts or to avert them entirely. This field has the modern-day interpretation of “disaster risk reduction,” defined as “The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development” (UNISDR, 2004).

Details

Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: Issues and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-487-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Jacqueline Scott

Uses data from 1994 International Social Survey Programme to examine how attitudes to maternal employment at different stages of child rearing vary across and within eight…

Abstract

Uses data from 1994 International Social Survey Programme to examine how attitudes to maternal employment at different stages of child rearing vary across and within eight nations in the European Union, UK, Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Sweden, Ireland, Italy and Spain. Considers whether a mismatch exists between belief in a women’s right to work and the “traditional” family ideology. Highlights a north/south divide in attitude and differing welfare policies and gender‐role beliefs.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 19 no. 9/10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2020

Milton Mayfield, Jacqueline Mayfield and Kathy Qing Ma

While there has been an abundance of research on the positive outcomes of creative environment, little work has been done on how creative environment influences the…

Abstract

Purpose

While there has been an abundance of research on the positive outcomes of creative environment, little work has been done on how creative environment influences the general work outcomes of noncreative specialist workers. The paper aims to fill this void by examining the influence of creative environment on absenteeism among garden variety workers and the mediating role of job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses cross-sectional data of 116 noncreative specialist workers to empirically test the hypotheses. The authors used covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) through the lavaan package for the statistical software R.

Findings

Results found that, for a cross section of noncreative specialist workers, a one standard deviation increase in a worker's creative environment would decrease that worker's absenteeism by 0.447 standard deviation. The creative environment also explained 11.3% of the variance in absenteeism. Subsequent analysis showed that job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between the creative environment and absenteeism and that the results were resistant to omitted variable bias.

Originality/value

The study contributes to theory and practice by showing empirically that creative environment leads to positive work outcomes, despite the innovation level required by the job. This study advances research on creative environment by targeting the garden variety workers, underscores the importance of cultivating a creative environment and calls attention to the complexity of the creativity–job affect link.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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