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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2007

Tim Reisenwitz, Rajesh Iyer, David B. Kuhlmeier and Jacqueline K. Eastman

The purpose of this paper is to extend earlier research on mature consumers and their internet use by examining how mature consumers' use of the internet is impacted by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend earlier research on mature consumers and their internet use by examining how mature consumers' use of the internet is impacted by their nostalgia proneness, innovativeness, and risk aversion.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a convenience sample (n=374) of respondents who were 65 years of age or older. Several scales were used to measure the constructs of interest to the research, all of which have been used in earlier research.

Findings

Results revealed that those seniors with higher levels of nostalgia proneness used and accessed the internet less, purchased less online, had less online experience and felt less comfortable using the internet. There is also support for the impact of innovativeness on mature consumers' internet use, frequency, online purchases, experience, comfort level with the internet, and satisfaction with the internet. In terms of risk aversion, seniors with more online experience report a lower level of risk aversion to the internet than other mature consumers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research needs to determine if these results can be replicated with a national random sample. Additionally, research is needed to determine what factors increase seniors' experience with the internet.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that seniors are becoming an increasingly more viable segment for internet marketers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Jacqueline K. Eastman and Jun Liu

This paper aims to compare the levels of status consumption for Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y (Millennials).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare the levels of status consumption for Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y (Millennials).

Design/methodology/approach

With an email sample of 220 adult consumers living in the southeast USA, this study measures status consumption, generational cohort, and demographics.

Findings

The study finds significant differences in the level of status consumption by generational cohort. The average level of status consumption was highest for Generation Y, followed by Generation X and then Baby Boomers. In looking at the significance of these differences between individual cohorts, there was a significant difference between Generation Y and Baby Boomers. This suggests that while there are differences in the level of status consumption by generation, this difference is only significant between Generation Y and Baby Boomers. This paper then examines if this relationship between generational cohort and status consumption is impacted by demographic variables, such as gender, income, and education. The results illustrate that, holding generation constant, there is no significant relationship between gender, income, or education with status consumption. There is also no significant interaction between generational cohort and the demographic variables of gender, income, and education. This suggests that the relationship between generational cohort and status consumption is due only to generation and is not being impacted by other demographic variables.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study include that it was a convenience sample of predominately white, educated, and younger adult respondents. Additional research is needed to specifically examine ethnic group differences and cohorts prior to the Baby Boomers.

Practical implications

For luxury marketers they need to consider generational cohort, rather than other demographic variables, when segmenting their market.

Originality/value

This paper addresses a gap in the literature by examining if there are differences in the motivation to consume for status based on generational cohort, focusing on the cohorts of Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Additionally, this paper proposes that generational cohort is a better means to segment the status consumer than other demographic variables.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Maria Aviles and Jacqueline K. Eastman

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how technological tools, such as Web 2.0 and online learning management systems, can be utilized to improve Millennials'…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how technological tools, such as Web 2.0 and online learning management systems, can be utilized to improve Millennials' educational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory survey of Millennial business students was conducted to measure their self‐reported use and perceived effectiveness of a variety of hardware, traditional, and Web 2.0 tools.

Findings

An exploratory study of business students finds that course websites and online assessments are the technological tools they report using most often. The technology tools that business students perceive as most effective include personal computers, laptop computers, course websites, discussion groups, message boards, and online assessments.

Research limitations/implications

This exploratory study looked only at business students' self‐report use and perceived effectiveness of technology tools. Future research is needed to examine other college students beyond business, to measure actual use and effectiveness, and to incorporate input from faculty on the use and effectiveness of technology tools.

Practical implications

In this paper, the authors discuss how technological tools, such as Web 2.0 and online learning management systems, can be utilized to improve Millennials' educational performance. These tools can meet Millennials' need for affiliation, low ambiguity, immediate feedback and a personalized learning experience.

Social implications

The Millennial generation is very different from the Generation X or Baby Boomer professor who is trying to effectively teach them. With a better understanding of students' perceptions, business faculties can better utilize technology to improve their Millennial students' performance while providing them with an active, engaging educational experience.

Originality/value

The focus of this paper addresses how to better utilize the technological aptitude of Millennial business students to enhance the students' educational performance and improve business faculty effectiveness.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

Jacqueline K. Eastman and Rajesh Iyer

Despite the growth of the Internet, one area that marketers have not really discussed is the elderly's use of the Internet. Given the rapid growth of this population as…

Abstract

Despite the growth of the Internet, one area that marketers have not really discussed is the elderly's use of the Internet. Given the rapid growth of this population as well as the potential the Internet holds for them, it is a subject worth consideration. This paper discusses the use of the Internet by a national random survey of elderly consumers and the impact of attitude, innovation, and demographics on their use. This study shows that the elderly consumers have favorable intentions towards using the Internet; most learned to use the Internet on their own; and they preferred to learn more about the Internet if such classes were offered at convenient locations. Those seniors with higher levels of income are more willing to both use the Internet and purchase products online; while education levels positively impacted only Internet use. Finally, this paper provides implications for marketers and suggestions for future research.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Stephanie P Thomas, Karl B. Manrodt and Jacqueline K. Eastman

– The purpose of this paper is to explore how the history of a supply chain relationship impacts expectations concerning negotiation strategy use.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the history of a supply chain relationship impacts expectations concerning negotiation strategy use.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a grounded theory approach, experienced buyers and suppliers were interviewed to enhance understanding of the complexity of supply chain negotiations.

Findings

Qualitative analysis developed a theoretical framework emphasizing the impact of relationship history on negotiation strategy expectations in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Data supports that previous negotiation interactions build a history between the involved organizations. This relationship history creates expectations. When negotiation strategy use is consistent with expectations, the relationship history will continue to develop in the same manner as it has previously. When negotiation strategy expectations are violated, the relationship impact will differ depending on evidence of an Extrarelational Factor that leads to the strategy change.

Research limitations/implications

Results of this study present a theoretical framework that future research can quantitatively test, which has the potential to open up new streams of research on relationship history and supply chain negotiations.

Practical implications

Results show that buyers and suppliers should consider the strategy expectations of their negotiation partner. When actions are inconsistent with expectations, the effects impact the relationship.

Originality/value

Negotiation research has largely focussed on negotiations as discrete events with economic outcomes. This ongoing buyer-supplier relationship research highlights the impact that previous negotiations (relationship history) have on negotiation expectations. It also explores the relational impact when those expectations are or are not met.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 45 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Jacqueline Kilsheimer Eastman and Rajesh Iyer

This paper aims to test the relationship between millennials’ status motivation and their ecologically conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) and the mediating role of culture…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test the relationship between millennials’ status motivation and their ecologically conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) and the mediating role of culture influencing this effect.

Design/methodology/approach

A panel of millennials was surveyed using established scales to measure their status motivation, cultural values and ECCB.

Findings

The findings demonstrate status motivation has a positive effect on millennials’ ECCB. The findings indicate that the cultural values of collectivism, power distance and masculinity mediate the relationship between status motivation and ECCB.

Research limitations/implications

This study looked at responses from one generation, millennials, in one country, the USA.

Practical implications

Status motivation can impact ECCB and cultural values mediate this relationship. Status motivation can directly impact ECCB, as well as work positively through the cultural values of collectivism and power distance and negatively through masculinity.

Social implications

The results suggest ECCB for status-motivated millennials is driven by both status motivation and their collectivism, power distance and masculinity. To encourage millennials’ ECCB, public policymakers and marketers should emphasize the social influences of sustainable behaviors and how these behaviors make them stand out from others who are not sustainable and target those who view women as equal to men.

Originality/value

This research examines how millennials’ status motivations impact their ecologically conscious behaviors both directly and through the mediating role of cultural values. This research contributes by answering the call for looking at the influence of cultural values on environmental behaviors. It offers a possible reason for the mixed findings previously in the literature regarding status and sustainability by illustrating status motivations may work both directly and through cultural values in influencing ECCB. Thus, it is one of the first studies to demonstrate culture’s mediating effect in the area of sustainability.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Hyunju Shin, Jacqueline Eastman and Yuan Li

This study aims to focus on understanding the consumer-luxury brand relationships among Generation Z. Generation Z is an up-and-coming generational cohort that has…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on understanding the consumer-luxury brand relationships among Generation Z. Generation Z is an up-and-coming generational cohort that has received limited research attention in the domains of both consumer-brand relationships and luxury branding, despite its growing size and purchasing power. Therefore, this study highlights the distinctive patterns of Generation Z’s relationship with luxury by identifying their choice of a luxury brand, the nature of the brand relationships, what characterizes these relationships and the internal and external influences that shape these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used brand collage construction. A total of 56 Generation Z respondents created brand collages that covered 38 different luxury brands. The data from the collages and their accompanying descriptions were evaluated using content analysis.

Findings

This study identifies Generation Z’s unique yet expansive view of luxury that encompasses not only traditional luxury but also masstige and non-traditional luxury brands. Moreover, the findings generally support that Generation Z’s relationships with luxury brands are characterized by “like” rather than “love”; while Generation Z may feel a high level of loyalty toward luxury brands in terms of attitudes and behaviors, they do not necessarily have strong, passionate feelings for them.

Originality/value

The findings of this study offer a comprehensive understanding of Generation Z’s brand relationship with luxury. Luxury marketers need to recognize that for Generation Z consumers, luxury is an integral part of their everyday lifestyle more than a display of success, which is clearly different from previous generations.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Mertcan Tascioglu, Jacqueline Kilsheimer Eastman and Rajesh Iyer

The purpose of the study is to investigate consumers’ perceptions of status motivations on retailers’ sustainability efforts and whether collectivism and materialism…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to investigate consumers’ perceptions of status motivations on retailers’ sustainability efforts and whether collectivism and materialism moderate this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research methodology using survey data was used. Data were collected by administering questionnaires from millennial respondents (n = 386) from the USA and Turkey.

Findings

The results show that cultural value (collectivism) and materialism can serve as moderators of the effects of status motivation and sustainability. The findings indicate that the link between status motivation and sustainability perceptions (both environmental and social sustainability) is stronger for more collectivist consumers. In terms of materialism, while it did not moderate the relationship between status motivation and perceptions of environmental sustainability, it did moderate the relationship between status motivation and perceptions of social sustainability, particularly the uniqueness aspect of materialism.

Research limitations/implications

The stronger link between status motivation and both environmental and social sustainability for collectivists suggests that the bandwagon effect may be impacting their need for status. The stronger link between status motivation and social sustainability for those more materialistic suggests that their need for status may be more impacted by a snob effect as they want to appear unique. The use of college students is a limitation of this study, and future research needs to explore a wider range of age groups to determine if there are generational differences. Additionally, future research could examine other cultural dimensions such as power distance and masculinity versus femininity.

Practical implications

Findings from this research provide insights for retailers, especially those targeting the status and luxury market when developing their sustainability plans. An interest in sustainability may aid consumers in meeting their need for status, particularly for those status consumers who are more collectivist, as a means to fit in with their group. For more materialistic consumers, retailers may want to focus more on unique social sustainability efforts that are more publicly noticeable.

Social implications

Social sustainability, a topic not studied as frequently as environmental sustainability, has significant implications for consumers. The findings suggest that the link between status motivation and social sustainability is stronger for collectivists, suggesting a bandwagon effect. Additionally, the authors find that the link between status motivation and social sustainability is stronger for materialists, particularly the uniqueness dimension of materialism, suggesting a snob effect.

Originality/value

The originality of this study lies in the exploration of how status motivation impacts consumers’ perceptions of retailers’ environmental and social sustainability efforts and if these relationships are moderated by collectivism and materialism. Few studies have examined social sustainability, especially in terms of culture.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Dora Elizabeth Bock, Jacqueline Kilsheimer Eastman and Benjamin McKay

Given the economic downturn, the purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between economic perceptions and consumers' motivation to consume for…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the economic downturn, the purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between economic perceptions and consumers' motivation to consume for status and if this relationship was moderated by education level.

Design/methodology/approach

A stratified random sample of adult consumers in the southeastern USA were surveyed by telephone. The hypotheses were tested utilizing structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results indicated that those consumers with a lower level of perceived economic welfare (i.e. see the economy and their family's financial situation as worse this year versus last year) were less motivated to consume for status. Furthermore, this relationship was positively moderated by education. No relationship was found between consumer confidence (i.e. consumers' perceptions of the economy in the future year) and status consumption. The results suggest that those consumers who perceive themselves to be financially better off this year versus last, particularly those more educated, are more motivated to consume for status.

Research limitations/implications

The main research limitation was that the sample skewed to be older, female and Caucasian, though the sample did match Census figures for the critical variable of education. Additionally, the phone response rate was 9 percent, but it is important to recognize that this was for a non-student sample.

Practical implications

The results suggest that marketers, targeting luxury consumers in the current stagnant economy, aim for more educated consumers who see their economic welfare as improving. This implication stems from the research findings revealing that consumers who feel they are recovering economically from the recent economic downturn, especially those with higher education levels, may more likely be status consumers.

Originality/value

With the democratization of luxury there is renewed interest in luxury consumption research. While research suggests there is a relationship between economic conditions and status consumption, few studies have measured consumer economic perceptions in relation to status consumption and none have examined how education may play a moderating role in explaining why people buy luxuries in a tough economic climate.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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