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Article

JOUKO NÄTTI and TIMO ANTTILA

This article examines experiments with shorter working hours in Finnish municipalities between 1996 and 1998. The article focuses on the effects of different working time…

Abstract

This article examines experiments with shorter working hours in Finnish municipalities between 1996 and 1998. The article focuses on the effects of different working time experiments on employees (work ability), on working units (quality of services) and substitutes recruited during the experiments. The results indicate that shorter working hours reduce job exhaustion, with respect to both 6‐hour shifts and other forms of reduced hours. The participants reported positive changes the quality and availability of services, especially in the case of 6‐hour shifts. In addition, during the experiment, new employees (substitutes) reported improved chances to obtain work in the future; after the experiment, however, only small a proportion of these employees were able to procure a new job. The analysis was based on three kinds of questionnaire data. First, in the three municipalities (Jyväskylä, Naantali and Espoo) — supported by the European Social Fund (ESF) — three‐phased panel data included 75 experimental and 42 control group participants. The second set of data was gathered in the other 14 municipalities implementing different working time experiments with a two‐phased questionnaire (panel data without control groups, n = 567). The third set of data included new employees (substitutes) recruited during the experiment in the three ESF municipalities and in Saarijärvi (n = 66).

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

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Article

Dag Naslund and Rahul Kale

Agile is the new popular management change method and agile has lots of momentum. Management consulting firms are promoting agile via articles and newsletters. While…

Abstract

Purpose

Agile is the new popular management change method and agile has lots of momentum. Management consulting firms are promoting agile via articles and newsletters. While history does not repeat itself, it often rhymes, and thus agile will probably be a successful change effort in some organizations. On the other hand, there is a high probability that agile will not deliver the expected results for most organizations. History reveals that about two-thirds of the change efforts are deemed unsuccessful – regardless of the actual change method. In this paper, we present the results of a systematic literature review on agile and we compare and contrast it with other similar organizational change methods. The purpose of this paper is to explore what one may learn from the history of the earlier change methods in terms of how organizations may succeed in their agile efforts.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a structured literature review of the agile concept – including agile transformation, and with a specific focus on critical success factors.

Findings

In addition to presenting the state of the art on agile in general, we identify, structure and categorize critical success factors (CSF) for agile. From the 13 categories, we form three clusters, which constitute a 3P framework (purpose, process and people). We also compare and contrast the CSF literature regarding agile with CSFs for organizational change in general. history indicates that most organizational change efforts are not successful. Based on the framework and the discussion, we provide recommendations to hopefully increase the probability of successful agile implementations.

Originality/value

Given the relative novelty or at least the renewed interest in agile, a structured literature review of the current status of this “new” method provides value as it may help organizations and managers to not repeat old mistakes – once again.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Article

Ulla Kinnunen, Anne Mäkikangas, Saija Mauno, Katri Siponen and Jouko Nätti

The purpose of the present study is to examine how perceived employability relates to job exhaustion, psychological symptoms and self‐rated job performance in involuntary…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to examine how perceived employability relates to job exhaustion, psychological symptoms and self‐rated job performance in involuntary and voluntary temporary employees compared to permanent employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a cross‐sectional design using a sample of university teachers and researchers (n=1,014) from two Finnish universities. Of the sample, 40 percent (n=408) are permanent employees, 49 percent (n=495) involuntary and 11 percent (n=111) voluntary temporary employees. Most respondents (54 percent) have education above a Master's degree, the average age is 43 years, and 58 percent are women.

Findings

The results of general linear model analyses show that perceived employability promotes favorable outcomes among all respondents. However, the negative relationship between perceived employability and job exhaustion and psychological symptoms is stronger among voluntary than among involuntary temporary employees.

Originality/value

The study indicates that although perceived employability seems to be important to all employees, involuntary temporary employees benefit least from high perceived employability in terms of individual well‐being.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article

Tiina Tuominen, Tapio Korhonen, Heikki Hämäläinen, Satu Temonen, Helena Salo, Jouko Katajisto and Hannu Lauerma

– The purpose of this paper is to determine the nature of the academic skills deficits in male offenders and their relation to neurocognitive deficits.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the nature of the academic skills deficits in male offenders and their relation to neurocognitive deficits.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 72 Finnish male prisoners were tested with regard to reading, spelling, and mathematical abilities.

Findings

Low academic skills, especially reading, were related to poor neurocognitive performance in verbal memory, visual memory, attention, and motor dexterity. The results showed a high number (29-36 percent) of reading and spelling disorders. In all, 15 percent of those with medium to severe problems in academic skills had marked difficulties in mathematics. In total, 88 percent of the participants with at least one problem area in literacy skills had neurocognitive deficits. In the present study, the pervasive neurocognitive deficits, occurring comorbidly with reading and spelling difficulties, seem to refer to a fundamental set of deficits which are only minimally explained by IQ, educational background or training.

Research limitations/implications

Reading and spelling difficulties could be seen as functional illiteracy which, combined with a broad spectrum of neuropsychological function deficits, pose a challenging task for rehabilitation. Only after proper identification of deficits has been achieved is it possible to set goals and select the appropriate means for rehabilitation. One obvious limitation is the moderate number of subjects (n=72).

Practical implications

It may not be enough just to train reading or develop literacy activities among prisoners; focussing intervention on comprehensive neurocognitive deficits is also necessary.

Originality/value

Correlates and comorbidity between academic difficulties and neurocognitive deficits among offenders, especially in arithmetic difficulties, have been less studied.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article

Sakari Taipale, Kirsikka Selander, Timo Anttila and Jouko Nätti

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level and predictors of work engagement among service sector employees in eight European countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level and predictors of work engagement among service sector employees in eight European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The work seeks to discover if job demands and resources, i.e. job autonomy and social support, affect work engagement in differing ways in different countries when socio‐demographical variables and work‐related factors are controlled. The study is based on a statistical analysis of survey data from Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and the UK in 2007 (n=7,867). The data represent four economic sectors: retail trade, finance and banking, telecoms and public hospitals.

Findings

The results show that the level of work engagement varies not only between countries but also between those four economic sectors within each country. Additionally, the findings indicate that demands decrease work engagement, while autonomy and support increase it. Although the effects are mainly the same across the countries, the article also points out some exceptions in this regard.

Originality/value

Although the paper is built upon established theories about job demands and autonomy, it uses a newer work engagement approach, produces cross‐national knowledge about work engagement and its predictors. Cross‐national approaches to work engagement are still rare.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 31 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article

Olli Nousiainen, Timo Urhonen, Tero Kangasvieri, Risto Rautioaho and Jouko Vähäkangas

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of using land grid array (LGA) solder joints as a second-level interconnection option in low-temperature…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of using land grid array (LGA) solder joints as a second-level interconnection option in low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC)/printed wiring board (PWB) assemblies for telecommunication applications. The characteristic behaviour of two commercial lead-free solder materials (Sn4Ag0.5Cu and Sn3Ag0.5Cu0.5In0.05Ni) in reflow processes and thermal cycling tests are also evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of the reflow temperature profile on voiding in two lead-free solders in LTCC/PWB assemblies was investigated using X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations. The test assemblies were fabricated and exposed to a temperature cycling test (TCT) in a 0-100°C or −40 to 125°C temperature range. Organic PWB material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was primarily used. In addition, to compare LGA assemblies with low and high global thermal mismatches, an LTCC module/FR-4 assembly was also fabricated and exposed to a TCT in a 0-100°C temperature range. The characteristic lifetime of the test assemblies was determined using DC resistance measurements. The failure mechanisms of the interconnections were verified using scanning acoustic microscopy, SEM and finite element (FE)-SEM investigations.

Findings

This work showed that the solderability of AgPt-metallized LTCC modules was poor, resulting in excessive voiding. This problem was avoided by using pre-tinned modules. In the test assemblies, the Sn4Ag0.5Cu joints had a lower void content and a higher characteristic lifetime compared with the Sn3Ag0.5Cu0.5In0.05Ni joints. Furthermore, it was observed that the Sn3Ag0.5Cu0.5In0.05Ni joints were more prone to fail along the interface between the Ag3Sn layer and the solder matrix than were the Sn4Ag0.5Cu joints. It was assumed that the observed difference in the primary failure mechanisms resulted in the decreased lifetime duration of the SnAgCu-InNi/Arlon in both temperature cycling conditions.

Originality/value

The results proved that the solderability of both solders in AgPt-metallized modules in a typical surface mount technology process was poor; however, the solderability of the test modules can be notably enhanced with pre-tinned pads. This work also demonstrated the effect of the metallization/solder pair on the failure mechanisms and failure rate in LTCC/PWB assemblies with LGA joints; the work also proved in the TCT, over a temperature range of 0-100°C, that using the present LGA joints in LTCC/PWB assemblies with a high global thermal mismatch did not increase the lifetime duration of the joints to the preferred level (3,000 cycles), whereas the performance of these joints was adequate in assemblies with a low global thermal mismatch. Moreover, the results indicated that using the LGA joint configuration enhanced the reliability of the LTCC/PWB assemblies compared with similar assemblies with collapsible ball grid array solder spheres.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article

Jussi Putaala, Olli Salmela, Olli Nousiainen, Tero Kangasvieri, Jouko Vähäkangas, Antti Uusimäki and Jyrki Lappalainen

The purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior of different lead-free solders (95.5Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu, i.e. SAC387 and Sn7In4.1Ag0.5Cu, i.e. SAC-In) in thermomechanically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior of different lead-free solders (95.5Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu, i.e. SAC387 and Sn7In4.1Ag0.5Cu, i.e. SAC-In) in thermomechanically loaded non-collapsible ball grid array (BGA) joints of a low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) module. The validity of a modified Engelmaier’s model was tested to verify its capability to predict the characteristic lifetime of an LTCC module assembly implementable in field applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Five printed wiring board (PWB) assemblies, each carrying eight LTCC modules, were fabricated and exposed to a temperature cycling test over a −40 to 125°C temperature range to determine the characteristic lifetimes of interconnections in the LTCC module/PWB assemblies. The failure mechanisms of the test assemblies were verified using scanning acoustic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission SEM investigation. A stress-dependent Engelmaier’s model, adjusted for plastic-core solder ball (PCSB) BGA structures, was used to predict the characteristic lifetimes of the assemblies.

Findings

Depending on the joint configuration, characteristic lifetimes of up to 1,920 cycles were achieved in the thermal cycling testing. The results showed that intergranular (creep) failures occurred primarily only in the joints containing Sn7In4.1Ag0.5Cu solder. Other primary failure mechanisms (mixed transgranular/intergranular, separation of the intermetallic compound/solder interface and cracking in the interface between the ceramic and metallization) were observed in the other joint configurations. The modified Engelmaier’s model was found to predict the lifetime of interconnections with good accuracy. The results confirmed the superiority of SAC-In solder over SAC in terms of reliability, and also proved that an air cavity structure of the module, which enhances its radio frequency (RF) performance, did not degrade the reliability of the second-level interconnections of the test assemblies.

Originality/value

This paper shows the superiority of SAC-In solder over SAC387 solder in terms of reliability and verifies the applicability of the modified Engelmaier’s model as an accurate lifetime prediction method for PCSB BGA structures for the presented LTCC packages for RF/microwave telecommunication applications.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article

Satu Ojala, Jouko Nätti and Timo Anttila

– The authors aim to compare how formal flexibility, such as telework, differs from informal overtime work at home regarding the work-family interface.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to compare how formal flexibility, such as telework, differs from informal overtime work at home regarding the work-family interface.

Design/methodology/approach

By using data from the Finnish Quality of Work Life Surveys from 2003 and 2008, the positive and negative measures concerning the work-family interface are examined through logistic regression analysis.

Findings

Employees doing informal overtime at home are more likely to be affected by negative emotions concerning work disrupting family lives. Additionally, negotiations between couples over the allocation of time become areas of conflict. Only weak evidence is provided for both telework and informal work at home supporting family life.

Research limitations/implications

In studying homeworking, it is important to separate between formal and informal flexibility at work. The data exceptionally enable that. The limitations of the data are cross-sectionality and only a few measures for assessing the positive work-family interface.

Originality/value

The contribution of the study is to show how informal overtime at home is related with stronger negative implications for work-family interface, when separated from telework. The article discusses how well-intentioned working schedule flexibility results in family life being infringed upon. Informal work may help attain a better work-family interface, but, with dual-earner employment being predominant in Finland, informal overtime work can increase pressures on families. The authors encourage the policy- and organisation-level recognition of informal overtime risks.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Jaakko Kujala, Soili Nystén-Haarala and Jouko Nuottila

The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of the main challenges of the contracting process and project contracts in the context of project business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of the main challenges of the contracting process and project contracts in the context of project business characterized by a high level of complexity and uncertainty. The authors argue that understanding contracting as a flexible process and as a business tool will contribute to creating more value in projects which are implemented in constantly changing circumstances or which require gradual and iterative development.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper with illustrative examples from the software industry.

Findings

A prevailing approach for both managing contracts and the contracting process focuses on careful planning and drafting of contracts that protect each party in the case of conflicts and disagreements. The underlying assumption is that all activities can be planned and documented in a formal contract. According to this approach, the contracting process is seen only as a bargaining negotiation and the project contract as a detailed agreement of the responsibilities and safeguarding clauses to protect one’s position in the event of conflicts and failures. However, in the context of project business characterized by complexity and uncertainty, there is a need for flexible project contracts. The authors suggest that there are two fundamentally different approaches to implementing flexibility in both the contracting process and the project contract: postponing the decision until there is adequate information for decision making or making decisions that allow flexible adaptation to changes during the project lifecycle.

Practical implications

The authors suggest that organizations in project business should pay closer attention to how contracts are formed and how flexibility is introduced to projects. Organizations are encouraged to see contracts as a business tool, not as rigid documents which are taken into use in case something goes wrong.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the understanding of how to adapt the contracting process to overcome challenges related to uncertainty, especially during the early phases of the project lifecycle. The authors provide a novel perspective on contracting as a process that extends over the lifecycle of a project and on the project contract as an agreement between parties formed during the contracting process. This perspective includes formal contract documents as well as various other documents, oral communication, commitments, actions and incidents.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

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Book part

Juha Laurila

Previous research has been relatively insensitive to the potential combined effects that the shared industry background and country of origin might play in the development…

Abstract

Previous research has been relatively insensitive to the potential combined effects that the shared industry background and country of origin might play in the development of MNCs. This is although there are various external constituents that pose distinctive demands especially on such groups of MNCs. The 15-year period of internationalization of three major Finnish paper companies examined in this study represents MNC development as a collective endeavor in which individual companies are especially influenced both by each other and by their joint external constituents. These influences materialize in analogous timing and patterns of internationalization across individual companies. In its entirety, the study thus suggests that the development of MNCs which operate in the same line of industry and originate from the same country can be considered an outcome of a mutual process that involves interaction both with each other and their shared external constituents. This also means that MNCs then are not only competitors, but simultaneously also a source of mutual support in their ever-continuing evolution.

Details

Multinational Corporations and Organization Theory: Post Millennium Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-386-3

Keywords

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