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This paper arises out of an attempt to present an integrated approach to the investment valuation of a building in a way that (i) allows complications to be introduced, (ii) keeps in mind that different investors will have different income requirements, and (iii) is likely to be understood by and acceptable to not only valuers but also those from other disciplines who from time to time become involved in the analysis or production of building valuations. The basic approach is to regard a building as an asset that will bring in a stream of annual incomes for a finite period and then have a (possibly zero) ‘final’ value that may be realised with perhaps a consequent capital gain. Rent reviews, maintenance, refurbishment and other matters complicate the position, but they can all be accommodated within the approach now presented.
THE Report of the Committee on Libraries, which was issued by the University Grants Committee in the summer of 1967, had for long been called the Parry Report after its Chairman, Dr. Thomas Parry, formerly Librarian of the National Library of Wales and at the time the Principal of University College of Wales in Aberystwyth. When it was first set up in June 1963 the terms of reference were as follows:
“Ice cream is a foodstuff in my opinion and not a confection,” stated Mr. Morley T. Parry, Northamptonshire's Chief Sanitary Inspector, at a meeting of that county's branch of the Ice Cream Alliance at Northampton on April 24th. But this very fact made it most necessary that every care should be taken to safeguard public health. Addressing the meeting on the new Ice Cream (Heat Treatment, etc.) Regulations, Mr. Parry dealt mainly, as he said, with the “etc.” These were liable to be overlooked, and he considered them certainly of no less importance than the heat treatment process itself. In particular, the regulations required traders “to protect their ice cream, at all times during its storage and distribution, from dirt, dust, or other contamination, and all apparatus and utensils must be thoroughly cleaned after use and kept clean at all times.” It is my belief, said Mr. Parry, that these requirements, together with that concerning storage temperature, will sound the death‐knell of the old‐fashioned pushcart. “I am so confident of this,” he continued, “that it is my intention to take what will probably be a ‘ test case ’ in this connection at the first opportunity. But I must add that I have seen only two such vehicles on the streets in this Borough during the last two years.” Giving examples of bacteriological tests, Mr. Parry remarked that they showed the need of coverings to prevent ingress of dust and dirt, even in shop premises, and really explained the reason for the requirement that ice cream must be stored at 28°F. He felt that protection of the product during times of busy sales was going to present the trade with an immense problem. Speaking of sampling tests of Northamptonshire's ice cream, Mr. Parry had an encouraging word to say about the county's manufacturers and traders. “Since early 1946 we have never had a really bad bacteriological sample from any traders following the methods we have advised,” he said. “I would like to take this opportunity to compliment local traders on the efforts they have made to carry out suggestions my department has made to them, many of which must have seemed ‘finicking.’” He announced that a modified form of the Methylene Blue Reduction Test used for milk was now to be used for testing ice cream samples in place of the bacteriological examination which gave plate counts, B. Coli and Faecal Coli contents.
This paper aims to develop a methodology for lean implementation that reduces the risk of damaging a company's key resources and abilities through the application of core…
This paper aims to develop a methodology for lean implementation that reduces the risk of damaging a company's key resources and abilities through the application of core competence theory.
Academic literature provided background conceptual understanding of lean and core competence theory for an industrial working party of domain experts from 15 major aerospace companies in the UK to develop a methodology for lean implementation that would not damage firm's competences. The methodology was trailed through cooperative inquiry in a business unit of a leading global aerospace company using a case study approach.
An accessible definition of core competence that captures academic theory was proposed through an industrial working group. Further a methodology for lean implementation, drawing upon core competence theories was developed. The method comprised four tools: market analysis, the visible value stream, customer value analysis, and financial modelling. Tools drew upon established practice and their joint application is intended to safeguard a company's key resources and capabilities from loss or impact during lean implementations. Application in a single case study company and the effects observed over a number of years indicated the methodology, though developmental, was capable of significant positive effects.
The paper provides a practical definition of core competence and application of theory within a lean implementation, trailed and validated in an industrial setting. Competence theory has previously been described as “lack‐lustre” due to the abstract nature of the ideas.
A memorandum on the Nutritive Value of Milk by the Advisory Committee on Nutrition appointed by the Minister of Health and the Secretary of State for Scotland has now been published with a prefatory note by Sir Kingsley Wood and Sir Godfrey Collins. The Chairman of the Advisory Committee is Lord Luke, and the members include Professor Cathcart, Sir F. Gowland Hopkins, Professor Mellanby and Sir John Boyd Orr. Its terms of reference are “To inquire into the facts, quantitative and qualitative, in relation to the diet of the people and to report as to any changes herein which appear desirable in the light of modern advances in the knowledge of nutrition.” The memorandum explains the high value of milk as an article of food. Analysis of its composition shows that milk contains protein of high nutritive value, energy‐giving nutrients, the known essential vitamins and many mineral elements and apart from its chemical composition it derived value from other properties such as easy digestibility. Many investigations have been made which justify the belief that the general health of the community, and especially of children, would be improved, and the incidence of disease, including rickets, diminished, if the present consumption of liquid milk, averaging about 0.4 pint per head per day, could be increased to about a pint. Milk has few disadvantages as an article of diet. For infants, after breast‐feeding has ceased, it should form the bulk of the diet, with any necessary supplements to furnish iron and vitamins C and D. After infancy milk is not a complete food but a very important item in diet, particularly for children, who should be given one to two pints a day, and for expectant and nursing mothers, for whom about two pints a day are desirable. Other adults, who need milk especially for the sake of its calcium and animal protein, should have at least half a pint a day. Milk is unfortunately liable to contamination by disease‐producing bacteria and its heating by suitable methods such as pasteurisation has important advantages in making it safe for human consumption from this point of view. Moreover, when milk is treated by heat, little significant change is known to occur in its nutritive properties, and such deficiencies as may be caused can readily be made good. It is therefore reasonable to assume that raw milk incorporated in other cooked articles of diet, such as bread and puddings, retains most of its nutritional properties. The report also calls attention to the degrees of nutritive value possessed by various milk products, especially separated milk. The memorandum is entitled “The Nutritive Value of Milk” and can be obtained (price 3d.) direct from H.M. Stationery Office or through any bookseller.
THE Reference Department of Paisley Central Library today occupies the room which was the original Public Library built in 1870 and opened to the public in April 1871. Since that date two extensions to the building have taken place. The first, in 1882, provided a separate room for both Reference and Lending libraries; the second, opened in 1938, provided a new Children's Department. Together with the original cost of the building, these extensions were entirely financed by Sir Peter Coats, James Coats of Auchendrane and Daniel Coats respectively. The people of Paisley indeed owe much to this one family, whose generosity was great. They not only provided the capital required but continued to donate many useful and often extremely valuable works of reference over the many years that followed. In 1975 Paisley Library was incorporated in the new Renfrew District library service.
The pattern of prosecutions forfood offences has changed very little in the past decade. Compositional offences have rarely exceeded 5 per cent and, since the 1967 batch of regulations for meat products, are mostly in respect of deficient meat content. Food hygiene offences have also remained steady, with no improvement to show for all the effort to change the monotony of repulsive detail. The two major causes of all legal proceedings, constituting about 90 per cent of all cases—the presence of foreign matter and sale of mouldy food—continue unchanged; and at about the same levels, viz. an average of 55 per cent of the total for foreign matter and 35 per cent for mouldy food. What is highly significant about this changed concept of food and drugs administration is that almost all prosecutions now arise from consumer complaint. The number for adulteration as revealed by official sampling and analysis and from direct inspectorial action is small in relation to the whole. A few mouldy food offences are included in prosecutions for infringements of the food hygiene regulations, but for most of the years for which statistics have been gathered by the BFJ and published annually, all prosecutions for the presence of foreign matter have come from consumer complaint. The extent to which food law administration is dependent upon this source is shown by the fact that 97 per cent of all prosecutions in 1971 for foreign bodies and mouldy food—579 and 340 respectively—resulted from complaints; and in 1972, 98 per cent of prosecutions resulted from the same source in respect of 597 for foreign matter and 341 for mouldy food. Dirty milk bottle cases in both years all arose from consumer complaint; 41 and 37 respectively.