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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Todd D. Smith and Mari-Amanda Dyal

The purpose of this paper is to develop and present a safety-oriented job demands-resources (JD-R) model that supports the notion that excessive job demands in the fire…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and present a safety-oriented job demands-resources (JD-R) model that supports the notion that excessive job demands in the fire service, when not controlled or countered, may increase firefighter burnout and diminish firefighter safety.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach for the present project includes a review of the JD-R literature and the presentation of a conceptual model specific to fire service organizations.

Findings

A conceptual model, relevant to fire service organizations was derived. The model argues that excessive job demands associated with workload, physical demands, emotional demands, and complexity can result in burnout if not controlled or countered. Safety-specific resources, including recovery, support, safety-specific transformational leadership and safety climate are theorized to buffer these effects and are suggested to enhance firefighter engagement. These effects are argued then to improve firefighter safety. Ultimately, the findings will help guide future research, intervention projects and workplace safety and health management programs and initiatives.

Originality/value

This paper and conceptual model extends the application of the JD-R model to fire service organizations. Further, the conceptual model supports the application of safety-specific job resources vs more traditional job resources as a means to enhance firefighter safety.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2013

Anja Van den Broeck, Joris Van Ruysseveldt, Els Vanbelle and Hans De Witte

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset…

Abstract

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset dissatisfaction such as social relations from job aspects that foster job satisfaction such as opportunities for advancement. While Hackman and Oldham (1976) focused on the motivational potential of job characteristics such as task identity and feedback, Karasek (1979) accentuated time pressure as a pivotal job demand. Together these models point out that various job characteristics may influence workers’ functioning.

Details

Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-000-1

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Arnold B. Bakker and Evangelia Demerouti

The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give a state‐of‐the art overview of the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model

Design/methodology/approach

The strengths and weaknesses of the demand‐control model and the effort‐reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being are discussed. The paper then introduces the more flexible JD‐R model and discusses its basic premises.

Findings

The paper provides an overview of the studies that have been conducted with the JD‐R model. It discusses evidence for each of the model's main propositions. The JD‐R model can be used as a tool for human resource management. A two‐stage approach can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of individuals, work groups, departments, and organizations at large.

Originality/value

This paper challenges existing stress models, and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well being. In addition, it outlines how the JD‐R model can be applied to a wide range of occupations, and be used to improve employee well being and performance.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Carolyn Timms and Paula Brough

The purpose of this paper is to compare the explanatory power of two theoretical frameworks in regard to the work engagement of 312 Queensland teachers from non-government…

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3450

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the explanatory power of two theoretical frameworks in regard to the work engagement of 312 Queensland teachers from non-government schools. The first theoretical model is the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory which suggests that work engagement will be evident if people report an abundance of resources in their work environment. The second perspective is self-determination theory (SDT) which suggests that work engagement will be evident if people are able to satisfy their personal psychological needs within the work environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The current research collected data from the same participants on two occasions with a six-month interval. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the research hypotheses both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.

Findings

It was found that the SDT provided the more compelling explanation for work engagement, in that career satisfaction (rather than job satisfaction) was a robust predictor of work engagement, although some evidence was also found for a contribution of the psycho-social work environment (supporting the JD-R model) in teachers’ work engagement or burnout. It was concluded that these two theoretical perspectives are compatible.

Practical implications

It is recommended that future studies of work engagement include some measurement of people's satisfaction that the career they have chosen fulfils their personal aspirations.

Social implications

The theories of SDT (work engagement as a fulfilment of psychological needs) and JD-R (work engagement as a balance of job demands and resources), while coming from different directions appear to be compatible, with each perspective enriching the other and affording administrators a more complete understanding of dynamics affecting the psychological health of teaching staff.

Originality/value

Previous work involving the JD-R and work engagement has focused on the immediate psycho-social environment of the workplace. The current research finds that career satisfaction predicts all dimensions of work engagement in cross-sectional analysis and over time. This supports insights from SDT and suggests that a more complete understanding of the dynamics of work engagement must include people's opportunity to redress psychological needs within the workplace.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 51 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

I-Shuo Chen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between creative self-efficacy and work engagement using openness to experience as a moderator. The theoretical…

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1079

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between creative self-efficacy and work engagement using openness to experience as a moderator. The theoretical background is rooted in the resource perspective of the job demands-resources model (JD-R model) of work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The developed hypotheses were tested in a study of 101 faculty members from a science and technology institute in the USA. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to analyze the data.

Findings

The results supported a positive effect of creative self-efficacy on work engagement but did not support a moderating effect of openness to experience on the relationship between creative self-efficacy and work engagement.

Originality/value

This study introduces the context of creativity into the work engagement and JD-R model fields. Specifically, through the resource perspective of the JD-R model, it theoretically and empirically extends the contribution and explanatory ability of personal resources to the improvement of work engagement.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Şennur Koroglu and Omur Ozmen

This study revisits the role of work engagement (WE) on innovative work behavior (IWB) in conjunction with the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, specifically examining…

Abstract

Purpose

This study revisits the role of work engagement (WE) on innovative work behavior (IWB) in conjunction with the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, specifically examining its mediating role between antecedent variables of psychological well-being (PWB), interpersonal conflict (IPC) and perceived organizational support (POS).

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted within five different sectors and 416 work settings in Turkey. A cross-sectional, correlational research design was used, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to test the mediating effect of WE.

Findings

The results of the SEM provided partial support for eight hypotheses. The results of this study demonstrate a positive relationship between PWB, POS, WE and IWB. This indicates that resources are vital in increasing both WE and IWB. As expected, the correlation of IPC and IWB resulted in a negative relationship. The findings demonstrate a positive relationship between PWB and WE and IWB.

Research limitations/implications

Extending the model, future research could incorporate the antecedents as mediators and utilize them to further explore the mechanisms of employee engagement (EE) and the IWB link. It would also be beneficial to include other variables such as personal differences, trust, personal environment fit, fairness in the workplace, recognition and organizational culture and employee value proposition as moderators of EE and IWB.

Practical implications

The findings offer the suggestion of few practical applications such as the need to encourage organizations to enhance PWB to foster positive feelings in the work environment. This includes increasing employees' effort and dedication by utilizing POS in the workplace and considering employee's well-being. Additionally, EE should be an important organizational strategy to positively influence employee creativity within the workplace.

Social implications

This research was conducted within the Turkish business context; it would be worthwhile to validate the findings of this study in a multicultural context that did not share similar basic characteristics as those in Turkey. There could be a comparative study of EE between Turkey and other countries as a cross-cultural investigation.

Originality/value

The results of data analysis have revealed an enhanced understanding of the role of the mediation effect of WE on IWBs. This study also expands the concept that psychological well-being can enhance WE, which in turn corresponds to more IWB in the context of the JD-R model. The findings indicate that in order to better comprehend its function, IPC needs to be further examined with other antecedents.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2021

Anastasia A. Katou, Michael Koupkas and Eleni Triantafillidou

The purpose of this paper is to integrate an extended by personal resource job demands-resources (JD-R) model in the relationship between transformational leadership and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate an extended by personal resource job demands-resources (JD-R) model in the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational performance. It is argued that the responsive, supportive and developmental leader's style will reduce employees' levels of burnout and increase their levels of work engagement and ultimately will increase organizational performance expressed by productivity, growth and creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses were tested among a national sample of 1,011 employees in 107 Greek public and private organizations operating within an environment of economic and financial crises. The operational model was tested using a multilevel structural equation modelling.

Findings

It appeared that job demands and work burnout and job resources and work engagement, serially and fully mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational performance. Further, it is found that personal resources negatively and fully mediate the relationship between job resources and work burnout and positively and partially mediate the relationship between job resources and work engagement.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected using a cross-sectional design, not allowing dynamic causal inferences.

Practical implications

Considering that the transformational leadership style reduces employees' levels of burnout and increases their levels of work engagement and accordingly improves organizational performance, organizations are well advised to encourage this leadership style.

Social implications

Transformational leadership by balancing job demands and job resources could have a positive impact on employee well-being.

Originality/value

The study, using multilevel testing, demonstrates that the extended JD-R model can be integrated into the transformational leadership– organizational performance relationship.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Gaurav Manohar Marathe, Girish Balasubramanian and Gloryson Chalil

The purpose of this paper is to extend the job demands-resources (JD-R) model by including the factor of “personal demands” and conceptualise experience on personal and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the job demands-resources (JD-R) model by including the factor of “personal demands” and conceptualise experience on personal and job dimensions separately as personal thrust and job thrust. Further, different psychological work states that individuals experience through intra-dimensional balance across personal and job dimensions are proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explains various possible psychological work states experienced by a job incumbent by conceptually developing intra-dimensional fluctuations within the person and job dimensions, respectively, as the new concepts of person and job thrust.

Findings

Personal thrust and job thrust have been identified as the two dimensions which impact the work state. Complete engagement and complete disengagement have been identified as two ends of a continuum. Complete work engagement is defined as the balance across these two dimensions. Various combinations of balances and imbalances across these two dimensions results in four different states of disengagement identified as work exhaustion, work boredom, work search and work neutrality.

Research limitations/implications

This paper suggests a novel approach to using personal demand to look at work states which would significantly impact existing research in the JD-R model. This paper tries to bridge the gap between work engagement as a construct and the psychological work states as a phenomenon. Further, it is contended that the psychological work states are manifestations of the interactions between the two dimensions identified as personal and job thrust, which could further be developed into various work-related attitudes and behaviours.

Practical implications

Instead of only relying on the engagement/disengagement dichotomy to plan interventions, managers can plan the appropriate interventions depending on the specific disengagement state analysed through personal and job thrust.

Originality/value

The newly developed model of work states explains the fluctuation of an individual across different work states and links the personal and job-related demand–resource balance at the workplace with distal work-related outcomes, thereby significantly extending the JD-R model.

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Yunsoo Lee

The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of chronic job discrimination on the relationships among job demands, job resources, personal resources…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of chronic job discrimination on the relationships among job demands, job resources, personal resources and psychological well-being among aged workers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used “National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS Refresher)” data collected from 862 aged workers in the United States from 2011-2014. A moderated multiple regression analysis was adopted.

Findings

The results of the multiple regression analysis show that skill discretion, self-esteem, optimism and active coping had positive effects on psychological well-being, while chronic job discrimination had a negative effect on psychological well-being. Co-worker support, supervisor support, job demands and decision-making authority were not significant. Among the interaction terms, the moderating effect between optimism and chronic job discrimination was significant.

Originality/value

Based on the results, this study offers implications for understanding the effects of job discrimination in the workplace among aged workers and their perceived psychological well-being, in the context of job demands and resources (JD-R) model.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Simon L. Albrecht

Worker well‐being continues to be fundamental to the study of work and a primary consideration for how organizations can achieve competitive advantage and sustainable and…

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9504

Abstract

Purpose

Worker well‐being continues to be fundamental to the study of work and a primary consideration for how organizations can achieve competitive advantage and sustainable and ethical work practices (Cartwright and Holmes; Harter, Schmidt and Keyes; Wright and Cropanzano). The science and practice of employee engagement, a key indicator of employee well‐being, continues to evolve with ongoing incremental refinements to existing models and measures. This study aims to elaborate the Job Demands‐Resources model of work engagement (Bakker and Demerouti) by examining how organizational, team and job level factors interrelate to influence engagement and well‐being and downstream outcome variables such as affective commitment and extra‐role behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equations modelling of survey data obtained from 3,437 employees of a large multi‐national mining company was used to test the important direct and indirect influence of organizational focused resources (a culture of fairness and support), team focused resources (team climate) and job level resources (career development, autonomy, supervisor support, and role clarity) on employee well‐being, engagement, extra‐role behaviour and organizational commitment.

Findings

The fit of the proposed measurement and structural models met criterion levels and the structural model accounted for sizable proportions of the variance in engagement/wellbeing (66 percent), extra‐role‐behaviour (52 percent) and commitment (69 percent).

Research limitations/implications

Study limitations (e.g. cross‐sectional research design) and future opportunities are outlined.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates important extensions to the Job Demands‐Resources model and provides researchers and practitioners with a simple but powerful motivational framework, a suite of measures, and a map of their inter‐relationships which can be used to help understand, develop and manage employee well‐being and engagement and their outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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