We have in recent years witnessed a spectacular revival of a doctrine which most economists had presumed to be dead, buried and thoroughly discredited. This is a doctrine which came to be known as the Treasury View. In brief the Treasury View stated that all attempts to stimulate employment by means of bond‐financed budget deficits (what Keynes called “loan expenditure”) were doomed to ignominious failure. The grounds for this belief varied somewhat, but underlying it was the view that the successful sale of government debt on the capital market would deprive private investors of access to an equal quantity of funds with which they might otherwise have purchased capital equipment. Nor would matters be materially improved if the increased competition for “investible funds” raised the level of savings via a rise in the rate of interest, for the rise in savings would, by definition; be accompanied by an equal fall in consumption expenditure. In other words, a rise in one form of expenditure would be exactly offset by reductions in the other components of aggregate spending.
OUR pages continue the discussion on book‐display, about which all has not been said by any means. The ingenious librarian will always sharpen his wits upon the attracting of readers, and the main problem in the matter is merely: what sort of reader is it most desirable to attract? We do not apologise for this reiteration, because it is the fundamental subject now facing librarians. We are not in the least moved by a comment in a contemporary that we are decrying libraries when we assert, and in spite of him we do assert, that fiction issues nearly all over London show a decline. That decline, we repeat, is due to the slight increase in the employment of readers, and to cheap fiction libraries. What the public librarian has to decide is if he shall compete with such libraries or more definitely diverge from them. If a middle course is preferred—as it usually is by Britons—what is that course? Ultimately, is the educated reader to be the standard for whom the library works, or the uneducated? Or, to put it another way, is the librarian in any way responsible for the quality of the books his community reads? Our readers, young and not so young, are invited to help us to answers to these live questions.
Since the onset of the industrial revolution in England during the late 18th century, it has become increasingly clear how advances in technology have played a pivotal…
Since the onset of the industrial revolution in England during the late 18th century, it has become increasingly clear how advances in technology have played a pivotal role in delivering wealth-creating economic growth, ranging from major advances in the generation of industrial power, initially through steam engines (e.g. successively by Nucomen, Watt and Trevithick), to the design of labour saving industrial machinery and working practices (Smith, 1776; Marx, 1867; Solow, 1957; Denison, 1967; Mansfield, 1968; Freeman, 1982). These advances have not merely resulted in industrial progress but have triggered changes in industrial location (e.g. water powered to coalfield sites in the cotton textile industry) (Riley, 1973), dictated population distributions and fixed the positions of major industrial cities within national and world regions. Indeed, perhaps, the most ambitious attempt to establish the major impact of revolutionary technological change on macro-level industrial performance was the explanation by Schumpeter of Kondratiev's ‘long wave’ industrial cycles (Kondratiev, 1925) in which upswings in world economic activity were linked to the introduction of pervasive new technologies caused by their ability to reduce unit prices, increase efficiency and be broadly applicable across large sectors of industry (e.g. stream and electric power) (Schumpeter, 1939; Freeman, 1986).
BY the time these words appear the majority of those who attend Library Association Conferences will have made tentative arrangements for their visit to Margate in June. Already, we understand, adhesions are coming in as many in number as for any September conference, and, if this is so, the fact will reassure those who have doubts of the wisdom of the change from September to June. We give on other pages some outline of the programme and in Letters on Our Affairs are presented with a Study of the subjects of the papers. Here we can concentrate upon one or two important points.
Librarianship, the comprehensive title Mr. R. Irwin has given to the small, concentrated series of discourses recently published by Messrs. Grafton & Co., is a sort of landmark in our thinking. It is a valiant attempt to establish some sort of arena for librarians ; not, indeed, a “philosophy of librarianship”—that, Mr. Irwin asserts, is not feasible as the term philosophy can be applied correctly only to subjects which are part of philosophy itself, although he admits a philosophy of religion, of science and, tentatively, of history. In spite of this precision, the book is what we ordinary librarians call a philosophy of librarianship. Like all good books, it will be the cause of considerable discussion and probably a good deal of argument, some of which the Editor of a library journal thinks it appropriate to indicate, for the book goes to the roots of current activities. But, in the first place, the author Stands apart as it were to get a comprehensive view and then asserts that librarianship is a word for “ applied bibliography ” and that definition covers every activity, book‐selection, bibliography popularly named, cataloguing, classification and the general exploiting of books. Librarianship is one technique, not several, and he implies that it has suffered from the tendency to teach library subjects as separate techniques, for example, cataloguing and classification which are actually one process. This separation was the result of part‐time and other fortuitous forms of teaching. Since the advent of library schools the tendency of the training and examination courses of the Library Association, and as a consequence of the schools themselves, has been to create a unity of Studies which is the perfect librarian's soundest equipment. That is the briefest Statement is the purpose.
ON December 6th Mr. Salter Davies was installed President of the Library Association at Chaucer House in succession to Mr. S. A. Pitt. A word first should be said about the Presidency of Mr. Pitt. It has been carried on under handicaps that would have deterred most men in such a post. A severe illness, successfully encountered and gallantly overcome, has been the main personal feature for Mr. Pitt of what should have been the most distinguisned year of a quite eminent library career. We had looked forward to very active work from him during his Presidency, and so far as circumstances permitted, he fulfilled all the obligations laid upon him completely. We can thank him more warmly, if not more sincerely, than perhaps would ordinarily be the case, because of the difficulties he has victoriously surmounted. With newly established health, we wish for him a continuance of the great work he has done for librarianship not only in Glasgow but in the Library Association and in the world of libraries generally.
MAKE no mistake about it, when a government enacts legislation it does so firmly believing that the new law is in the best interests at least to the majority of the population it is supposed to serve. (This may not be wholly true in some dictatorial regimes, but it holds for democracies.) So it is a pity when, as happens far too frequently, the effect differs from or sometimes is completely opposed to the aims in the minds of the legislators.
A GRATIFYING sign of the times is the apparent activity among the several branch library associations, an activity that is very necessary in view of likely library developments of the near future. In addition to the usual sectional meetings, a feature in recent years has been the joint Summer meetings provided by the North Central, North Western and the North Midland Library Associations. These meetings have been held at Derby, Buxton, and Chester, and this year's, we understand, is now being organised to take place at Harrogate, probably this month.
Examining the education and training needs of forensic nurses is paramount as services move from the older institutions to new care settings. The purpose of this study was…
Examining the education and training needs of forensic nurses is paramount as services move from the older institutions to new care settings. The purpose of this study was to identify Irish Forensic nurses perceived deficits in their knowledge and skills to assist them to provide effective seamless care for individuals with an intellectual disability within their forensic mental health service, so that appropriate training could be provided.
Training needs analysis (TNA) procedures are used as a way of establishing the continuing processional development of staff, as they seek to identify the gaps between the knowledge and skills of an individual and the need for further training. A training needs tool developed by Hicks and Hennessy (2011) was used and completed by nurses working in an Irish forensic mental health service. A total of 140 surveys were circulated and 74 were completed (51 per cent response).
The top priority training needs identified were for additional training in research and audit and in the use of technology. Other self-identified training needs included additional training in behavioural management for challenging behaviour, understanding mental health and intellectual disability and dual diagnosis, training in enhancing communication skills and how to work with patients who have an intellectual disability patients specific training on autistic spectrum disorders and a guide and template for advance individual care planning and for caring for the physical health needs and promoting the physical health needs of these patients.
Despite there being a vast range of training issues identified, the majority of nurses appear to have a clear idea of their training needs to ensure the provision of seamless care for individuals with an intellectual disability within a forensic mental health setting. This TNA has identified the specific needs of nursing staff working at different positions across the interface of intellectual disability and forensic mental health care.