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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2018

Yongqi Feng and Tianshu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the driving forces and structural changes of China as a market provider for Korea. This paper gives the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the driving forces and structural changes of China as a market provider for Korea. This paper gives the answers for the following questions: How do China’s final demands trigger the growth of its imports from Korea? And what’s the impact of China’s final demands on the import in different industries?

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Multi-Regional Input-Output model and World Input-Output Table database, this paper constructs the non-competitive imports input-output (IO) table of China to Korea. According to this table, we can calculate the induced imports coefficient and comprehensive induced import coefficients of China’s four final demands for imports from Korea in the 56 industries in China.

Findings

Among the four driving forces, the strongest one is changes in inventories and valuables. The impact of final consumption expenditure and fixed capital formation is much lower than that of changes in inventories and valuables, but they have a broader impact for the 56 industries. This paper finds out the China’s import induction of the final demands to Korea peaked in 2005 and 2010 and decreased greatly in 2014, so the position of China as market provider for Korea will no longer rise substantially, contrarily it will be in a steady state.

Originality/value

First, this paper constructs the non-competitive IO table to analyze the market provider issues between two countries and provides practical ways and methods for studies on the issues of imports and market provider. Second, this paper investigates the different roles of four final demands on driving force of China as market provider for Korea and the structural changes of China as a market provider for Korea among 56 industries from 2000 to 2014.

Details

Journal of Korea Trade, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-828X

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2018

Mahmood Kasravi, Amin Mahmoudi and Mohammad Reza Feylizadeh

Construction projects managers try their best for the project to go according to the plans. They always attempt to complete the projects on time and consistent with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Construction projects managers try their best for the project to go according to the plans. They always attempt to complete the projects on time and consistent with the predetermined budgets. Amid so many problems in project planning, the most critical and well-known problem is the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP). The purpose of this paper is to solve RCPSP using hybrid algorithm ICA/PSO.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the existence of various forms for scheduling the problem and also the diversity of constraints and objective functions, myriad of research studies have been conducted in this realm of study. Since most of these problems are NP-hard ones, heuristic and meta-heuristic methods are used for solving these problems. In this research, a novel hybrid method which is composed of meta-heuristic methods of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) has been used to solve RCPSP. Finally, a railway project has been examined for RCPS Problem in a real-world situation.

Findings

According to the results of the case study, ICA/PSO algorithm has better results than ICAs and PSO individually.

Practical implications

ICA/PSO algorithm could be used for solving problems in a multi-mode situation of activities or considering more constraints on the resources, such as the existence of non-renewable resources and renewable. Based on the case study in construction project, ICA/PSO algorithm has a better solution than PSO and ICA.

Originality/value

In this study, by combining PSO and ICA algorithms and creating a new hybrid algorithm, better solutions have been achieved in RCPSP. In order to validate the method, standard problems available in PSPLib library were used.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 May 2021

Oluyemi Theophilus Adeosun and Oluwaseyi Omowunmi Popogbe

Human capital flight from developing countries to developed nations has been rising and giving concerns to governments and scholars alike. This paper aims to explore the…

Abstract

Purpose

Human capital flight from developing countries to developed nations has been rising and giving concerns to governments and scholars alike. This paper aims to explore the impact migration from Nigeria has on economic output growth by focusing on the migration rate, remittances, population growth and secondary school enrolment. This has not received adequate attention in the literature, as many papers have primarily focused on the impact of remittances on economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

Leveraging on the macro-level approach to migration, remittances and the economy, this research considers the nexus among the human capital flight and output growth variables by using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) method of analysis for time series data between 1986 and 2018.

Findings

The net migration rate from Nigeria was found from the empirical analysis to be more disadvantageous for the economy, given its negative relationship with economic growth despite the large volume of foreign incomes (remittances). It also shows that secondary school enrolment positively and significantly impacted the Nigerian growth rate in the long run.

Originality/value

This research has widened the use of variables by combining net migration rate, remittances from abroad, population growth rate and secondary school enrolment to obtain a more robust outcome with implications for research and practice.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Sumit Kumar Maji and Arindam Laha

In the present knowledge economy, intellectual capital (IC) is regarded as one of the significant determinants of efficiency, profitability, and ultimately value of a…

Abstract

In the present knowledge economy, intellectual capital (IC) is regarded as one of the significant determinants of efficiency, profitability, and ultimately value of a firm. This chapter empirically investigates the ramifications of the IC on the level of efficiency of the firm. In addition, exploration of the changing dynamics in the relationship between IC and firm level efficiency in the face of global economic crisis is of special interest of this chapter. In attaining the objectives of the study, a comprehensive database of 299 manufacturing firms (chosen randomly from a stratification of six BSE manufacturing industry subsectors) were utilized during the period from 1999–2000 to 2013–2014. Firm level efficiency scores and implications of IC (as measured by employing Pulic's Value Added Intellectual Capital Model) on the level of efficiency of the firms were examined simultaneously using Stochastic Frontier Analysis. Empirical results revealed that IC significantly determines the efficiency of the manufacturing firms during the period of study. However, the impact of financial crisis was not robust in changing the synergy between efficiency and IC. Size, age, and leverage were also found to be significant determinants of efficiency during the period of study.

Details

Productivity Growth in the Manufacturing Sector
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-094-8

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

Pablo de Pedraza, Kea Tijdens and Stefano Visintin

The purpose of this paper is to explore the matching process before and after the Great Recession in the Netherlands. The Dutch case is interesting because it is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the matching process before and after the Great Recession in the Netherlands. The Dutch case is interesting because it is characterised by increasing matching efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses data from 2001 to 2014 to study the Dutch labour market matching process accounting for the three labour market states and their heterogeneities.

Findings

The elasticity of hires with respect to the short-term employed was significant, positive and countercyclical, while elasticities relating to new entrants were procyclical. The matching function (MF) displays constant returns to scale (CRTS) when using an alternative labour supply (LS) measure that includes the short-term employed as jobseekers. The findings are at odds with the idea of mismatch and a shortage of skills. Search frictions for employers were lower and vacancies were filled faster. This can be related to the fact that in a loose labour market context with increasing short-term employment, employers increase their hiring of employed workers which generates negative externalities on unemployed.

Originality/value

The implications concern the specification of the MF and the CRTS assumption when using unemployment as a LS measure.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Fredrik W. Andersson, Susanne Gullberg Brännstrom and Roger Mörtvik

It is increasingly important to study labour market outcomes for people who are not in employment, education, or training (NEET). Where most studies focus solely on young…

Abstract

Purpose

It is increasingly important to study labour market outcomes for people who are not in employment, education, or training (NEET). Where most studies focus solely on young people, the purpose of this paper is to include both younger and older NEETs to find out if there is any long-term scarring effect, and if the effect is different between these two groups.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a twin-based estimation method for the first time to measure the long-term effect of economic inactivity on income. The analysis is based on biological twins, in order to control for individuals’ unobservable heterogeneity. It is assumed that twins are similar to each other and the only unobservable heterogeneity is at the family level. Register-based data from Statistics Sweden is used.

Findings

The result indicates a significant negative income effect for those who have been in NEET, and is larger for those who have been in NEET for several consecutive periods of time. Individuals who were in NEET during 2001-2003 had on average 62 per cent lower income compared with their twin in 2011. The corresponding number for individuals who were in NEET for just one period was 33 per cent. Hence, time in NEET reduces income. The results show that the long-term scarring effect is not affected by age.

Originality/value

This study utilises for the first time a twin-based estimation method to measure the long-term effect of inactivity. Most studies focus solely on young people, but the authors also include an older group of people.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2014

Sebastian Königs

I study state dependence in social assistance receipt in Germany using annual survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the years 1995–2011. There is…

Abstract

I study state dependence in social assistance receipt in Germany using annual survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the years 1995–2011. There is considerable observed state dependence, with an average persistence rate in benefits of 68 per cent comparing to an average entry rate of just above 3 per cent. To identify a possible structural component, I estimate a series of dynamic random-effects probit models that control for observed and unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity of initial conditions. I find evidence of substantial structural state dependence in benefit receipt. Estimates suggest that benefit receipt one year ago is associated with an increase in the likelihood of benefit receipt today by a factor of 3.4. This corresponds to an average partial effect of 13 percentage points. Average predicted entry and persistence rates and the absolute level of structural state dependence are higher in Eastern Germany than in Western Germany. I find only little evidence for time variation in state dependence around the years of the Hartz reforms.

Details

Safety Nets and Benefit Dependence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-110-7

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Núria Rodríguez-Planas

This paper is the first to present empirical evidence consistent with models of signaling through unemployment and to uncover a new stylized fact using the 1988–2006…

Abstract

This paper is the first to present empirical evidence consistent with models of signaling through unemployment and to uncover a new stylized fact using the 1988–2006 Displaced Worker Supplement (DWS) of the Current Population Survey (CPS), namely that, among white-collar workers, post-displacement earnings fall less rapidly with unemployment spells for layoffs than for plant closings. Because high-productivity workers are more likely to be recalled than low-productivity ones, they may choose to signal their productivity though unemployment, in which case the duration of unemployment may be positively related to post-displacement wages. Identification is done using workers whose plant closed as they cannot be recalled, and no incentives to signal arise.

Details

New Analyses of Worker Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-056-7

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Oluwaseyi Popogbe and Oluyemi Theophilus Adeosun

Human capital flight from Nigeria to developed countries has remained a topical issue. This paper aims to empirically analyze the push factors for the migrants who explore…

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Abstract

Purpose

Human capital flight from Nigeria to developed countries has remained a topical issue. This paper aims to empirically analyze the push factors for the migrants who explore the various legal migrant schemes from a macro perspective. The authors examine human capital development and its role in contributing to human capital flight to more developed counties.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is anchored on the push–pull model. Using secondary data from 1990 to 2019, the authors look at the relationship between human capital flight and variables such as life expectancy, infant mortality rate, population growth rate and Nigeria’s unemployment rate. The auto-regressive lag model (ARDL) was adopted to estimate the empirical relationship among these variables.

Findings

The results from the ARDL model suggest a positive relationship exists between population growth rate and migration rate. A negative relationship was, however, observed between life expectancy and migration rate. This study also found that an increase in the infant mortality rate negatively impacted migration significantly. Therefore, an increase in infant mortality rate lowered the migration rate. Finally, an increase in the unemployment rate increased migration; however, insignificantly.

Research limitations/implications

The findings from this study are limited to the push factors influencing migration out of Nigeria. These factors are also restricted to variables for which data can be derived under the study’s scope. The results of this study have far-reaching implications, especially for policymakers and citizens alike. Better human capital development through enhanced life expectancy and reduced population in Nigeria will reduce the migration rate. Therefore, this study calls for the doubling of developmental and infrastructural efforts at all levels of governance.

Originality/value

This paper’s importance lies in its ability to elucidate push factors that influenced migration out of Nigeria empirically. An empirical approach to the subject matter will explain these factors and the degree to which they influence migration. This will guide the policy-making process in curbing brain drain, which is a major challenge in Nigeria.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Marek Antosiewicz and Piotr Lewandowski

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors behind cyclical fluctuations and differences in adjustments to shocks in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain (GIPS) and a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors behind cyclical fluctuations and differences in adjustments to shocks in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain (GIPS) and a reference country – Germany. The authors try to answer the question whether the GIPS countries could have fared differently in the Great Recession if they reacted to shocks affecting them like a resilient German economy would have.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a DSGE model of real open economy with search and matching on the labour market and endogenous job destruction, estimated separately for each country. The authors calculate impulse response functions, historical decompositions and perform counterfactual simulations of the response of the German model to the sequence of shocks identified for each of GIPS.

Findings

The authors find that all GIPS countries were more vulnerable to productivity and foreign demand shocks than Germany. They would have experienced lower macroeconomic volatility if they reacted to their shocks like Germany. Employment (unemployment) rates in GIPS would have been less volatile and higher (lower) during the Great Recession, especially in Spain and Greece. Real wage volatility would have been higher, especially in Spain and Portugal.

Originality/value

The trade-off between unemployment and wage adjustments vis-à-vis Germany was the largest in Spain, which also would have experienced lower variability of job separations and hirings. The evolution of the labour market in Greece and Portugal was driven rather by its higher responsiveness to GDP fluctuations than in Germany, whereas Italy emerges as the least responsive labour market within GIPS.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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