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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Simon Alain Song Ntamack

Inequality is an essential factor for the alleviation of poverty. In Cameroon, most of the households derive their livelihoods from non-wage income and a better…

Abstract

Inequality is an essential factor for the alleviation of poverty. In Cameroon, most of the households derive their livelihoods from non-wage income and a better understanding of how different variables affect income inequality is a way to reduce those inequalities and improve social welfare. Studies carried out so far barely make out the determinants among non-wage earners. This study sets out to identify these determinants, using the regression-based decomposition technique and data obtained from the 2005 Employment and Informal Sector Survey (EISS) undertaken by the National Statistic Institute (INS) in Cameroon. Results show that the total inequality of an hourly active income ensues from the ratio of age/experience and unobserved individual heterogeneity among non-wage earners.

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Economic Well-Being and Inequality: Papers from the Fifth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-556-2

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Alex Bryson and Harald Dale-Olsen

Higher replacement rates often imply higher levels of absenteeism, yet even in generous welfare economies, employers provide sick pay in addition to the public sick pay…

Abstract

Higher replacement rates often imply higher levels of absenteeism, yet even in generous welfare economies, employers provide sick pay in addition to the public sick pay. Using comparative population-representative workplace data for Britain and Norway, we show that close to 50% of private sector employers in both countries provide sick pay in excess of statutory sick pay. However, the level of statutory sick pay is also much higher in Norway than in Britain. In both countries, private sick pay as well as other benefits provided by employers are chosen by employers in a way that maximizes profits having accounted for different dimensions of labor costs. Several health-related privately provided benefits are often bundled. In both countries easy-to-train workers, high turnover and risky work are linked to less extensive employer provision of extended sick leave and sick pay in excess of statutory sick pay. In contrast, the presence of a trade union agreement is strongly correlated with both the provision of private sick pay and extended sick leave in Britain but not in Norway. We show that the sickness absence rate is much higher in Norway than in Britain. However, the higher level of absenteeism in Norway compared to Britain relates to the threshold for statutory sick pay in the Norwegian public sick pay legislation. When we take this difference into account, no significant difference remains.

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Health and Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-861-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Yaman Omer Erzurumlu and Idris Ucardag

This paper aims to investigate private pension fund investor sentiment against fund performance and cost in an environment of frequent regulatory changes. The analyses are…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate private pension fund investor sentiment against fund performance and cost in an environment of frequent regulatory changes. The analyses are conducted in a low return, high-cost private pension fund market environment, which makes it easier to observe the relationship between investor sentiment to return and cost.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducts fixed effect, random effect and random effect within between effect panel data analyses of all Turkish private pension funds from 2011 to 2019. This paper conducts the analyses using aggregate data and subsets based on fund characteristics and pre-post regulation periods.

Findings

When regulations provide compensation and improve market efficiency in a pension fund market, investor focus shifted from performance to cost. Investors allocated assets with respect to return realization when adequately compensated for risk or had favorable cost contract clauses. Consequently, investors in pension funds with lower expected returns and no special fee reduction clauses tended to adopt the strategy of cost minimization.

Research limitations/implications

The overlap of regulatory change periods could complicate the ability to distinguish the impact of any one specific change. The findings therefore cannot be generalized to differently structured markets.

Practical implications

Regulatory changes could lead to a switch of investor objectives. When regulatory changes compensate investors and increase market efficiency, investors objective could switch from performance to cost.

Originality/value

This study investigates investor sentiment in a relatively young private pension fund market, in which the relevant regulatory body ambitiously implements frequent changes in regulation. The selected market is unique in the sense that it has negative real returns and high costs, which make investor focus to return and cost more readily apparent.

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Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Linda Fenimore

The purpose of this paper is to explore how home reading practices can impact what teachers assume to be the optimum practice in preparing students for school may not be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how home reading practices can impact what teachers assume to be the optimum practice in preparing students for school may not be supported by the local culture. In Kuwait, I have heard teachers repeatedly complain that students do not read at home or seem to value reading. Kuwaiti adults relate that they rarely engage in reading for pleasure. Students here are challenged with learning English, but also seem to take a greater amount of time to understand the use of reading in their lives and learning. These factors led me to consider that what teachers assume to be the optimum practice in preparing students for school may not be supported by the local culture.

Design/methodology/approach

In this case study, five nannies were interviewed focusing on participants’ reading practices in their homes of origin and those practiced with Kuwaiti children. Observational notes were taken to record nonverbal communication. Data were analyzed to uncover references to home reading practices such as storytelling, recreational reading and verbal interaction based on the reading. References were color coded and a database was constructed of references the nannies made to reading practices both in their homes of origin and in the Kuwaiti homes in which they work. The references to reading practices were then categorized according to activities reported.

Findings

As a result, it was found that the nannies perceived the purpose of reading to be for education only, storytelling is used for different purposes in different cultures, print material were rarely found in the homes of the nannies due to lack of economic means, and the fathers of most of the nannies were critical in their reading development.

Research limitations/implications

Further exploration of the home reading practices of the Kuwaitis is needed to fully support the effective inclusion of their cultural reading traditions into school practice. Parent and student surveys, parent interviews and possibly home visits would assist researchers in more fully defining home reading practices. Partnering with Arabic-speaking or Kuwaiti teachers would benefit researchers in being able to efficiently translate for the interviews and then discuss their observations, giving the researchers a more nuanced perspective of the findings.

Originality/value

This paper offers an original view on a particular aspect of international education, namely, reading habits, and discusses the promotion of multicultural reading instruction in a more culturally responsive manner.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2021

Abdullah Masum and S M Shariful Islam

The purpose of this study is to critically analyze the Financial Compensation Funds being accumulated by Islamic Banks of Bangladesh in credit-based transactions. In this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to critically analyze the Financial Compensation Funds being accumulated by Islamic Banks of Bangladesh in credit-based transactions. In this connection, due to the evolved liquidity crisis amidst the COVID-19, industry opinions are observed that suggest including the compensations or the donation funds directly into the bank's income account. But the Sharīʿah does not permit it. Such alternative proposals of using compensation or donation fund during crises are scrutinized under Sharīʿah principles to come to a logical conclusion.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach followed in the study is textual and discourse analysis through descriptions of ideal Sharīʿah-compliant methods for handling late payment of credit and comparison with the industry practices.

Findings

It is observed that there are conceptual gaps in the industry as is reflected in the Islamic Banking Guideline of Bangladesh. The funds collected from the debtor due to late payment are named as compensation (Ta‘wīḍ) whereas the nature of the transaction is a donation (Tabarru'). The misconception can lead to various Sharīʿah non-compliant activities later with the funds. The proposals brought out in the industry to use such compensation/donation funds during a crisis are a consequence of this. The proposals of using such funds for banks' purposes in any situation are not supported by Sharīʿah principles and are against the Islamic banking philosophy.

Originality/value

The study is very relevant to the current crisis of COVID-19 in the domestic Islamic Banking Industry and also instrumental for the future guidance to stick to the Sharīʿah principles in managing compensation or donation funds by the Islamic Banks.

Details

Islamic Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-1616

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Silvio Rendon

This paper aims to weigh the restrictions to job creation imposed by labor market imperfections with respect to financial market imperfections. The authors want to see…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to weigh the restrictions to job creation imposed by labor market imperfections with respect to financial market imperfections. The authors want to see which restriction is more severe, and thus assess which is more powerful in creating permanent employment if it were removed.

Design/methodology/approach

A structural estimation is performed. The policy rules of the dynamic programming model are integrated into a simulated maximum likelihood procedure by which the model parameters are recovered. Data come from the CBBE (Balance Sheet data from the Bank of Spain). Identification of key parameters comes mainly from the observation of debt variation and sluggish adjustment to permanent labor.

Findings

Long-run permanent employment increases up to 69% when financial constraints are removed, whereas permanent employment only increases up to 54% when employment protection or firing costs are eliminated. The main finding of this paper is that the long-run expansion of permanent employment is larger when financial imperfections are removed than when firing costs are removed, even when there are important wage increases that moderate these employment expansions.

Social implications

The removal of firing costs has been suggested by several economists as a result of the analysis of labor market imperfections. These policies, however, face the strong opposition of labor unions. This paper shows that the goals of permanent job creation can be accomplished without removing employment protection but by means of enhancing financial access to firms.

Originality/value

The connection between financial constraints and employment has been studied in recent years, motivated by the Great Recession. However, there is no assessment of how financial and labor market imperfections compare with each other to restrict permanent job creation. This comparison is crucial for policy analysis. This study is an attempt to fill out this gap in the economic literature. No previous research has attempted to perform this very important comparison.

Details

Applied Economic Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 71 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Pablo Adrian Garlati-Bertoldi

I evaluate how the tax reform of 2012 reduced informality in Colombia both theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, I develop a labor market model and obtain…

Abstract

I evaluate how the tax reform of 2012 reduced informality in Colombia both theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, I develop a labor market model and obtain simulations indicating that the reform should reduce informality significantly. Empirically, I obtain difference-in-difference estimates from two household surveys. Estimates from the repeated cross-sections data indicate small, short-term effects and large long-term effects. Estimates from the household survey panel data are in line with these results. I also simulate difference-in-difference estimates with different combinations of changes in payroll taxes and enforcement indicating that large improvements would have been needed to obtain the corresponding econometric estimates.

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Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-933-5

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Abstract

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Quantitative and Empirical Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Macromodels
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44452-122-4

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Alan L. Gustman and Thomas L. Steinmeier

This paper advances the specification and estimation of econometric models of retirement and saving in two earner families. The complications introduced by the interaction…

Abstract

This paper advances the specification and estimation of econometric models of retirement and saving in two earner families. The complications introduced by the interaction of retirement decisions by husbands and wives have led researchers to adopt a number of simplifications. Our analysis relaxes these restrictions. The model includes three labor market states, full-time work, partial retirement, and full retirement; reverse flows from states of lesser to greater work; an extended choice set created when spouses make independent retirement decisions; heterogeneity in time preference; varying taste parameters for full-time and part-time work; and the possibility of changes in preferences after retirement.

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Factors Affecting Worker Well-being: The Impact of Change in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-150-3

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