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It is not possible in an article of this size to deal with all aspects of the corrosion problems encountered in the handling and manufacture of food. Accordingly it is proposed to discuss only a few, namely, those special aspects which appear to make the food industry unique in the corrosion technologist's experience.
Existing reviews of research on voluntary childlessness generally take the form of narrative summaries, focusing on main topics investigated over time. In this chapter…
Existing reviews of research on voluntary childlessness generally take the form of narrative summaries, focusing on main topics investigated over time. In this chapter, the authors extend previous literature reviews to conduct a systematic review and content analysis of socio-historical and geopolitical aspects of knowledge production about voluntary childlessness. The dataset comprised 195 peer-reviewed articles that were coded and analysed to explore, inter alia: the main topic under investigation; country location of authors; sample characteristics; theoretical framework and methodology. The findings are discussed in relation to the socio-historical contexts of knowledge production, drawing on theoretical insights concerned with the politics of location, representation and research practice. The shifts in the topics of research from the 1970s, when substantial research first emerged, uphold the view of voluntary childlessness as non-normative. With some regional variation, knowledge is dominated by quantitative, hard science methodologies and mostly generated about privileged, married women living in the global North. The implications of this for future research concerned with reproductive freedom are outlined.
Most people would agree that smoking, especially of cigarettes, is a closely ingrained habit in great masses of the British people, as indeed it is in most other parts of the world, but there can be few countries where so many people smoke at their work. The large number of prosecutions of food workers for smoking while handling open food and the presence of tobacco, cigarette ends, spent matches, etc., in foods; these are an index of how widespread is the habit of smoking at work.
The majority of Authorities who are responsible for the enforcement of that portion of the Food and Drugs Act dealing with the hygiene of food premises have recognised that legislation, even when coupled with regular inspections, is insufficient to produce the desired result. Many of them have embarked upon lectures, others on more lengthy schemes of training for the employees, some have linked this with special standards to be adopted for premises, such as the Clean Food Guild instituted at Guildford, Holborn and other large Boroughs. These standards have met with very mixed receptions from the various organisations of the food traders; some of them adopting the view that establishments of old construction are unduly penalised, as compared with premises of modern design. The consensus of opinion, however, among both the local authorities and food traders, is the desirability of giving training facilities to those engaged in the industry. These courses may range from one to five lectures with a comprehensive syllabus, and are usually accompanied by films such as “ Another Case of Poisoning ”, “ Insect Pests in Food”, and the film strips of the Central Council for Health Education. It is interesting, at this stage, to compare the approach of the American authorities to this problem. Reviewing the United States Public Health Services booklet “ Guide to Safe Food Service ” a similar conclusion has been drawn, that, whilst the prevention of food poisoning outbreaks was at first handled almost entirely through legislation and enforcement, this often proved unsatisfactory and inadequate. Coercion at times was found to create resentment, and often postponed an understanding of correct practices until after Court action had been taken. Another approach was the physical examination of all restaurant workers, but this did not give the desired results; such inspections tending to promote a false sense of security, inasmuch as no examination can ensure freedom from communicable diseases during the period between examinations. Experience with food sanitation courses, as they are termed, soon demonstrated their practicability and effectiveness. It was found that education explained the reasons for the requirements of the laws and regulations and thereby gained acceptance for them; the decisive factor being that such courses were popular and further lectures were requested. Where co‐operation was enlisted by means of these lectures inspectors had far less difficulty in carrying out their work. Frequent inspections should be coupled with the education programme to serve as a reminder of the need to observe correct practices. The recommendations given to the lecturers could well be digested by many in this country. On regular inspections, during the course of his duties, the inspector should build up good working relations as he talks informally with the owner and employees about their problems. He should avoid a policeman's attitude, and, as a good officer of the law, he should carefully refrain from taking liberties with it, As a teacher, he should be careful not to fall into a condescending attitude, and criticisms must be brought out of the realm of fault‐finding. The Guide, a booklet of some sixty pages, gives advice to members of the Health Department on the formation of such a course, and stresses the advisability of having a representative committee to assist in this formation. It has been found, too, in this country that, if food hygiene lectures are to be successful, it is essential that the goodwill and backing be obtained, not only of the trade associations such as the hoteliers and restaurateurs, but of the branches of the respective trade unions representing the employees. In this way specialist lectures to the various groups can be organised, with previous knowledge of the scope and numbers involved. Lectures should be organised within normal working hours, with additional lectures for those for whom this is not practicable. Lectures to employers should, in all cases, be given prior to undertaking the training of their staff. The American method of approaching the problem of lectures has obviously been subject to detailed analysis, and it is felt that the three points given below can be considered with advantage by those responsible for lecturing to food handlers in this country. The methods of presentation should always take into account the fact that—
A TYPICAL example of the kind of problem which the corrosion engineer is called in to solve was given in the American Brewers' Digest recently. It appears that a certain brewery discovered that pitting corrosion and paint film failure were occurring in their pasteuriser tanks, in spite of the fact that a high quality vinyl‐type protective coating had been applied to the interiors only a few months previously and sodium dichromate added to the water as a corrosion inhibitor.
Construction is a competitive, ever‐changing, and challenging industry. Therefore, it is not surprising that the majority of construction professionals suffer from stress…
Construction is a competitive, ever‐changing, and challenging industry. Therefore, it is not surprising that the majority of construction professionals suffer from stress, especially construction project managers (C‐PMs), who are often driven by the time pressures, uncertainties, crisis‐ridden environment, and dynamic social structures that are intrinsic to every construction project. Extensive literature has indicated that stress can be categorized into: job stress, burnout, and physiological stress. This study aims to investigate the impact of stress on the performance of C‐PMs.
To investigate the relationships between stress and performance among C‐PMs, a questionnaire was designed based on the extensive literature, and was sent to 500 C‐PMs who had amassed at least five years' direct working experience in the construction industry. A total of 108 completed questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 21.6 percent. Based on the data collected, an integrated structural equation model of the stresses and performances of C‐PMs was developed using Lisrel 8.0.
The results of structural equation modelling reveal the following: job stress is the antecedent of burnout, while burnout can further predict physiological stress for C‐PMs; job stress is negatively related only to their task performance; both burnout and physiological stress are negatively related to their organizational performance; and task performance leads positively to their interpersonal performance. Recommendations are given based on the findings to enhance their stress and performance levels.
This study provides a comprehensive investigation into the impact of various types of stress on the performances of C‐PMs. The result constitutes a significant step towards the stress management of C‐PMs in the dynamic and stressful construction industry.
The Australian Capital Territory has shaken off the bonds of the New South Wales Department of Education and instituted an Authority responsible directly to the Federal…
The Australian Capital Territory has shaken off the bonds of the New South Wales Department of Education and instituted an Authority responsible directly to the Federal Government. The new system includes in its design for “a working partnership for local‐central control” school boards. This paper attempts a comparison of that partnership with that evolved within the New Zealand experience. The A.C.T. Authority as it is presently constituted exercises control only over government primary and secondary schools. The discussion is therefore restricted to these fields and ignores preschool and technical education and independent schools, all of which are expected eventually to be brought within the scope of the Authority. Six issues are discussed in detail: (1) the general question of centralisation, (2) the role of a centralised agency, (3) the role of the community in an education system, (4) life‐long education, (5) the appointment of staff, and (6) the control of finance.
In a recent issue of the Municipal Journal there appeared a short but apparently inspired article on the subject of London Government, in which is foreshadowed another drastic and apparently imminent alteration of the system of local administration at present in operation in the Metropolis.
Internet + and Electronic Business in China is a comprehensive resource that provides insight and analysis into E-commerce in China and how it has revolutionized and continues to revolutionize business and society. Split into four distinct sections, the book first lays out the theoretical foundations and fundamental concepts of E-Business before moving on to look at internet+ innovation models and their applications in different industries such as agriculture, finance and commerce. The book then provides a comprehensive analysis of E-business platforms and their applications in China before finishing with four comprehensive case studies of major E-business projects, providing readers with successful examples of implementing E-Business entrepreneurship projects.
Internet + and Electronic Business in China is a comprehensive resource that provides insights and analysis into how E-commerce has revolutionized and continues to revolutionize business and society in China.