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POLYSULPHONES are high temperature engineering thermoplastics. In many respects they extend the use of conventional aircraft engineering plastics to considerably higher…
POLYSULPHONES are high temperature engineering thermoplastics. In many respects they extend the use of conventional aircraft engineering plastics to considerably higher temperatures, and can be used continuously up to temperatures approaching 260°C.
This paper aims present a thermal touch screen for the blind – a thermal tablet. A blind person using the device can imagine simple graphics or characters by touching flat…
This paper aims present a thermal touch screen for the blind – a thermal tablet. A blind person using the device can imagine simple graphics or characters by touching flat thermal screen, which consists of reversible heat points, either warm or cold in different time. For the purpose, a thermal touch screen has been designed, fabricated and tested with a help of the blind.
The screen contains 294 Peltier modules working as reversible small heat sources that keep pre-set different temperature. The tablet can easily present thermal images and characters generated directly by an interfaced PC. Design methodology is based on own authors’ patent.
This paper presents original design and construction stages, as well as tests and usefulness of the device. The tests were carried out with participation of blind students who suggested how to tune the final parameters of the device in such a way that presentation and recognition of thermal information is easy and quick.
The thermal tablet consists of original hardware and software. Both of them collaborate each other and make the tablet useful for the blind. It has been proved by series of tests.
We study the performance attributes of an international production form that is designed for success in an increasingly global marketplace‐global product design and…
We study the performance attributes of an international production form that is designed for success in an increasingly global marketplace‐global product design and development. We find that firms elicit higher returns from their global product development when they compete in strategic complements than when they compete in strategic substitutes. These firms are most likely to compete in strategic complements if they have higher free cash flows, but are most likely to compete in strategic substitutes if they are more dominant in their industry. Importantly, global product development reduces cost largely via variable cost reduction. Moreover, we find that global product development contributes to the firm’s growth potential when pursued in conjunction with high multinationalism, aggressive competitive strategy, and high cost saving.
Depending on the research approach one uses, the development of particular bodies of knowledge over time is the result of a combination of agency, chance, opportunity…
Depending on the research approach one uses, the development of particular bodies of knowledge over time is the result of a combination of agency, chance, opportunity, patronage, power, or structure. This particular account of the development of geographies of tourism stresses its place as understood within the context of different approaches, different research behaviors and foci, and its location within the wider research community and society. The chapter charts the development of different epistemological, methodological, and theoretical traditions over time, their rise and fall, and, in some cases, rediscovery. The chapter concludes that the marketization of academic production will have an increasingly important influence on the nature and direction of tourism geographies.
This study proposes an objective assessment model to evaluate the performance of internal and external capabilities of firms. It facilitates firms to invest appropriate…
This study proposes an objective assessment model to evaluate the performance of internal and external capabilities of firms. It facilitates firms to invest appropriate resources to cultivate the organizational capability necessary to meet the requirements of the performance indicators.
This study integrates the concepts of resource-based theory, the organizational capability concept, and conduct a performance analysis to the four perspectives of the BSC by implementing the fuzzy set theory and data employment analysis.
The findings show that the appropriate strategies help allocate available resources and capabilities during the different product life cycle, which provides practical guidelines for firms to achieve sustaining competitive advantage.
The selected factors were focused on four resources and capabilities rather than all possible factors.
An objective assessment model was created based on internal and external competitive performance efficiency in this research field. This model facilitates the ability of the top management to make decisions for resource allocation that will enhance firm's performance.
This chapter uses Goffman’s concept of total institutions in a comparative case study approach to explore the role of psychotropic drugs in the process of…
This chapter uses Goffman’s concept of total institutions in a comparative case study approach to explore the role of psychotropic drugs in the process of transinstitutionalization.
This chapter interprets psychotropic drug use across four institutionalized contexts in the United States: the active-duty U.S. military, nursing homes and long-term care facilities, state and federal prisons, and the child welfare system.
This chapter documents a major unintended consequence of transinstitutionalization – the questionable distribution of psychotropics among vulnerable populations. The patterns of psychotropic use we synthesize suggest that total institutions are engaging in ethically and medically questionable practices and that psychotropics are being used to serve the bureaucratic imperatives for social control in the era of transinstitutionalization.
Psychotropic prescribing practices require close surveillance and increased scrutiny in institutional settings in the United States. The flows of mentally ill people through a vast network of total institutions raises questions about the wisdom and unintended consequences of psychotropic distribution to vulnerable populations, despite health policy makers’ efforts regulating their distribution. Medical sociologists must examine trans-institutional power arrangements that converge around the mental health of vulnerable groups.
This is the first synthesis and interpretive review of psychotropic use patterns across institutional systems in the United States. This chapter will be of value to medical sociologists, mental health professionals and administrators, pharmacologists, health system pharmacists, and sociological theorists.
“The definition of auditing calls for the communication of the degree of correspondence between assertions and established criteria” [ASOBAC, 1973]. As the profession has…
“The definition of auditing calls for the communication of the degree of correspondence between assertions and established criteria” [ASOBAC, 1973]. As the profession has rejected adoption of universal quantitative definitions of materiality as infeasible [FASB, 1979], Don Leslie  recommended adoption of a standard requiring disclosure of specific engagement materiality thresholds in the auditor's report. This study examines how such disclosures might affect perceptions of an auditor's culpability and liability in instances where post publication errors are discovered which alternately aggregate to more or less than reported materiality thresholds. A behavioral experiment was conducted in which eighty‐seven U.S. general jurisdiction judges participated. Findings support the potential for meaningful modifications to the standard auditor's report to reduce perceived auditor liability but also note the importance of jurists' pre‐experimental attitudes and beliefs respecting the public accounting profession. In 1985, the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants published Materiality: The Concept and its Application to Auditing [CICA, 1985]. In that research study, Don Leslie focused on his perceptions of the communication deficiencies of the standard form audit report used in Canada and the U.S. — the most critical of which he found to be the continuing lack of a quantitative definition of materiality. Leslie's remedy for the problem was novel and controversial even if his recognition of this problem was not without precedent. Leslie did not recommend the prompt adoption of universal, quantitative materiality standards (a proposal which has stalemated progress in the profession for years) but rather adoption of a standard making it compulsory that auditors disclose their individual materiality standards, whatever they may be, on each specific audit, in the audit report. To date, no serious research has examined this proposal since the report's publication, and yet the costs of the communications gap between accounting/auditing professionals and the public seem to be getting greater. The Auditing Standards Board recently readdressed the communications provided by the standard form audit report. One of the clearest observa‐tions to emerge from those deliberations was that there is a lack of reliable research data upon which to base regulatory decisions in this area [Elliott and Jacobson, 1987]. This paper contributes to reduce that vacuum. Specifically, on the following pages we outline the genesis of a research project and the findings of that study in which eighty‐seven (87) U.S. judges evaluated whether and to what degree an altered form of the audit report (including quantitative definition of materiality) would reduce the assessed culpability and legal liability of auditors. The remaining sections of this paper are organized as follows: in section one, we will summarize representative recent relevant literature; in section two, we develop testable hypotheses from that background literature; in section three, we provide a description of the design of our study; in section 4, our findings are reported and in section 5 we discuss implications for practice and future research.
Success in the new economy is more dependent on successful relationships with internal and external stakeholders than ever before. The “business ecosystem” has created…
Success in the new economy is more dependent on successful relationships with internal and external stakeholders than ever before. The “business ecosystem” has created webs of interdependent relationships between organizations and their employees, suppliers, customers, and business partners. These relationships not only impact how firms add value to customers and create competitive advantage, but various internal processes as well. Unfortunately, these relationships often fail to capture their full potential due to misalignment between the organization and its stakeholders. This article presents a practical guide for organization‐based 360 degree leadership assessment, which should help organizations to identify gaps or “blind spots” with internal and external stakeholders. Borrowing from the multi‐rater feedback literature, a discussion of the steps in using the organization’s leadership as the focal point is provided. Self‐assessment on a series of organizational leadership dimensions is proposed, which is compared to evaluations by employees, customers, suppliers and business partners. The proposal should provide direction for practitioners seeking greater stakeholder feedback, and a foundation for further academic inquiry.