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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Karin Klenke

Abstract

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Women in Leadership 2nd Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-064-8

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

J.H. Lau, S.J. Erasmus and D.W. Rice

A review of state‐of‐the‐art technology pertinent to tape automated bonding (for fine pitch, high I/O, high performance, high yield, high volume and high reliability) is…

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Abstract

A review of state‐of‐the‐art technology pertinent to tape automated bonding (for fine pitch, high I/O, high performance, high yield, high volume and high reliability) is presented. Emphasis is placed on a new understanding of the key elements (for example, tapes, bumps, inner lead bonding, testing and burn‐in on tape‐with‐chip, encapsulation, outer lead bonding, thermal management, reliability and rework) of this rapidly moving technology.

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Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2015

Latrica Best and W. Carson Byrd

Our primary aim is to discuss the variability that exists in the operationalization of race/ethnicity in research on genetic and biological markers. We employ Stuart…

Abstract

Purpose

Our primary aim is to discuss the variability that exists in the operationalization of race/ethnicity in research on genetic and biological markers. We employ Stuart Hall’s “floating signifiers” of race approach to explain the ambiguous manner in which researchers discuss the links between race and genetics.

Methodology/approach

We examine articles that use race/ethnicity and genetic or biological markers between 2000 and 2013 within three prominent genetic journals. We focused on original, empirical articles only. We utilize various race/ethnic-related search terms to obtain our sample and to categorize how terms were used.

Findings

A total of 336 articles fit our search criteria. The number of articles mentioning race/ethnicity and genetic or biological information increased over the time. A significant percentage of publications base their research on whites only. When discussions of race are included in studies, scientists often use multiple categories of race/ethnicity without much explanation.

Research limitations/implications

We omit non-research articles and commentary for each journal, which could contain important discussions regarding race and genetics. This work highlights how race/ethnicity can vary in application and interpretation.

Originality/value

Our discussion of race/ethnicity as “floating signifiers” adds a layer of complexity to the longstanding debate regarding the importance of race/ethnicity in genetic research. The “floating” nature of race/ethnicity underlines how subjective the characterizations of samples are and how possible interpretations of results for groups can impact health disparities research. Given the increased use of genetic data by social scientists, there is a need for more cross-disciplinary discussions on the race–gene relationship.

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Genetics, Health and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-581-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2017

Mélia Djabi and Sakura Shimada

The purpose of this article is to understand how academics in management deal with the concept of generation in the workplace. We begin by conducting an interdisciplinary…

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to understand how academics in management deal with the concept of generation in the workplace. We begin by conducting an interdisciplinary literature analysis, thereby elaborating a conceptual framework concerning generational diversity. This framework consists of four levels of analysis (society, career, organisation and occupation) and three dimensions (age, cohort and event/period). We then conduct a meta-analysis using this conceptual framework to analyse papers from the management field. The results from this analysis reveal the existence of a diversity of generational approaches, which focus on the dimensions of age and cohort on a societal level. Four factors seem to explain these results: the recent de-synchronisation of generational dimensions and levels, the novelty of theoretical models, the amplification of stereotypes by mass media and the methodologies employed by researchers. In sum, this article contributes to a more realistic view of generational diversity in the workplace for both academics and practitioners.

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Management and Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-489-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

J.T. Lynch

A review is given of the reliability of the ceramic chip carrier when solder‐attached to alumina thick film substrates. It is shown that no degradation occurs during…

Abstract

A review is given of the reliability of the ceramic chip carrier when solder‐attached to alumina thick film substrates. It is shown that no degradation occurs during humidity cycling or humidity steady state tests. Some diminution of the solder joint strength takes place during prolonged high temperature storage and temperature cycling but the effect is much more marked during power cycling. The effect of flux residues on thick film hybrids after solder reflow of surface mount components is assessed. No significant deterioration of any component, printed or discrete, that is attributable to flux is observed, given adequate cleaning techniques. The reliability of the ceramic leadless chip carrier is compared with both leaded ceramic and metal and plastic surface‐mountable components. The compliant leads of packages offer some advantages over the leadless chip carrier where thermal excursions are important but the leads themselves are easily damaged. Plastic packaging for surface‐mountable components continues to improve and become increasingly popular but potential reliability hazards associated with a thermal management performance inferior to that of ceramic and metal versions, moisture ingress and corrosion are seen to remain problem areas.

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Microelectronics International, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

An T.K. Tran and Astrid L. Keel

The purpose of this study is to examine individuals’ subjective perception of spare time available for activities that are more or less attractive.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine individuals’ subjective perception of spare time available for activities that are more or less attractive.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments with adult samples manipulate liking of activity and temporal distance and assess the resulting predicted time available.

Findings

The authors demonstrate that individuals’ subjective perception of spare time is influenced by how much they like or dislike the activities they plan for. Individuals perceive they have more spare time for activities they like than ones they dislike. The strength of individuals’ liking for activities has more impact on perceived spare time available for liked activities than for disliked ones. These effects are attenuated by individuals’ propensity to plan.

Originality/value

Understanding the effect of spare time perception contributes to the literature on resource slack and provides insights into individuals’ planning for time.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2020

Julinda Hoxha

Abstract

Details

Network Policy Making within the Turkish Health Sector: Becoming Collaborative
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-095-5

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1940

We have on many occasions drawn attention to the all too prevalent fallacy of judging the nutritive and dietetic value of foods solely by their chemical composition…

Abstract

We have on many occasions drawn attention to the all too prevalent fallacy of judging the nutritive and dietetic value of foods solely by their chemical composition without regard to the digestibility of the foods, and to the more or less prevalent idiosyncrasies of the public in connection with such foods. In an excellent article in The Times, Sir Wyndham Dunstan observes that “it has to be remembered that, however desirable the constituents of a given material may seem, in order to be of real value that material must be digestible— capable of assimilation within the body. In this matter of digestion people differ greatly and there must be latitude in the choice of food. While consumption in quantity of uncooked green and other vegetables is widely advocated, many are unable easily to digest some vegetables unless cooked, and not always then except in very moderate amount. Many other factors have to be taken into account in planning a common dietary. There are different tastes and preferences. The appeal a particular food makes to the individual and the appetite it stimulates are important points. The psychological factor plays a significant part and must be met by providing as wide a selection of palatable food as possible. These are a few truisms often overlooked.” With regard to the kind of bread we should eat and ought to be made to eat in war‐time, the writer observes that “there is unanimity in regarding a wholemeal bread (not always the same thing as “brown” bread) as that which should be generally eaten and readily procured. This is not at present the rule. Should it be made so? The constituents of wholemeal bread supply not only nourishment for the body but protection against ill‐health. Some of the more valuable constituents are absent from the white bread, so long the staple of this country, because they have been removed in the conversion of the wheat into white flour, which is now often further whitened and further deteriorated by a chemical bleaching agent. White bread is therefore a sophisticated and inferior food to which we have grown so accustomed that its use has become an ingrained habit. The obvious course in the circumstances, especially in war‐time, would be to compel the use of wholemeal bread and prohibit white bread. But, though such a course would be for the good of the nation, a sudden change of the kind, however beneficial, is bound to be inconvenient, if not distasteful, to many who are attached to white bread, and particularly to those who do not, or cannot, understand the need for change. There are people who say they can digest white bread more easily than “brown.” Thus it happens that the Ministry of Food, advised by numerous experts and confronted with numerous objectors, is apparently in favour of the evasive alternative of restoring artificially to white bread one at least of the valuable constituents it has lost in manufacture without impairing its whiteness. At first it was intended to do this by adding to white flour suitable quantities of two chemically prepared substances, one a vitamin and the other a calcium compound. Recently the synthetic vitamin only has been indicated as the proposed addition. This seems a clumsy and unnecessary concession to sentiment, involving considerable expenditure. It has been widely critised and regarded as “faking” bread. An eminent physician, Sir Ernest Graham Little, while condemning the proposal on general grounds, also questions its efficacy. Why first remove a natural constituent of wheat in making flour and then afterwards, at a cost, add to the flour this constituent artificially manufactured: He presents a convincing case for the use of wholemeal bread. With regard to the argument that some people dislike wholemeal bread and find it less easy to digest, it may be doubted whether many of them have eaten true wholemeal. “Brown” breads, including bread made with coarse ground wheat or bran and also several varieties of “brown” bread sold under largely advertised names, are almost everywhere procurable at higher prices than white bread. Fine wholemeal bread as well as flour is less easy to find. Large numbers of people eat very little bread, and it is therefore of small importance to them whether it is wholemeal or white. They consume far less than the three‐quarters of a pound a day included in Sir William Bragg's basal diet and make up for it with other foods which they can afford to buy. A really nutritious bread chiefly concerns the poorer classes, who eat much more bread than those better off. For the poor the substitution of wholemeal bread for white is a matter of far‐reaching importance. It has been stated that in many places wholemeal is dearer than white, but inquiries in the trade suggest that this is not as it should be, apart from “fancy” brown breads. As has been pointed out, the Ministry of Food, confronted with alternatives, apparently favour the introduction of “faked” white bread rather than the adoption of wholemeal. There is, however, a medium course. In this country we have come to recognise the “inevitability of gradualness,” and the medium course would meet present needs and might lead to the voluntary adoption of all that is desired.— It has been found that the admixture with fine ground wholemeal flour of about 10 per cent. of white flour makes a light coloured, very palatable, and digestible bread of good texture. Its nutritive value is very little less than that of full wholemeal bread; in fact a rather larger proportion of white flour would be permissible. The mixed flour is quite satisfactory for rolls, scones and cakes.” If an admixture of the kind suggested would overcome the prejudice against wholemeal bread and render it palatable to those people who dislike the ordinary wholemeal bread, there would seem to be a very strong case for adopting such a suggestion rather than first to remove a natural constituent of wheat and subsequently, at a cost, artificially add to the flour the constituent which has been removed in the manufacture of the flour.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 42 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2015

Victor Villarreal and Maria J. Castro

Although many educators feel insecure about reporting suspected child maltreatment, educators are in a unique position to identify and, subsequently, intervene in such…

Abstract

Although many educators feel insecure about reporting suspected child maltreatment, educators are in a unique position to identify and, subsequently, intervene in such cases. This is particularly true for those working in early childhood education settings, as the youngest children – those most vulnerable to the effects of maltreatment – are at the greatest risk for being victims of most types of maltreatment. Thus, early childhood educators should be familiar with child maltreatment and be prepared to act in these cases. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a general overview of child maltreatment. Definitions and prevalent issues will be discussed, and the potential effects of child maltreatment across a variety of domains, including cognitive, academic, social, and behavioral functioning, will be highlighted. Finally, the authors explore various responsibilities, such as mandated reporting and intervention and prevention activities, of early childhood educators.

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Discussions on Sensitive Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-293-1

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2011

Abstract

Details

Librarianship in Times of Crisis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-391-0

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