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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

J.R.C. Pimentel, J.R. Kuntz and Detelin S. Elenkov

The purpose of this paper is to offer an interdisciplinary review of the existing research on ethical behavior – informed by philosophical theories, social sciences, and…

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10679

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer an interdisciplinary review of the existing research on ethical behavior – informed by philosophical theories, social sciences, and applied business research – and identifies the merits and limitations of the extant theories, including the applicability of prescriptive frameworks and models to business practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the review, the paper advances a descriptive model of ethical decision‐making criteria that elucidates how individual, organizational, and environmental variables interact to influence attitude formation across critical components of an ethical issue.

Findings

The model advanced expands upon other existing frameworks and provides a comprehensive and simultaneous assessment of the interplay between individual‐level variables (e.g. demographic variables, position in the organisation), the structure and climate of the organisation in which the decisions are made, and the social and political features of the business environment.

Practical implications

The proposed model can be used as a training tool and it holds several advantages over the extant alternatives, namely versatility (it is adaptable to the specific organizational context in which respondents are required to conceptualize the dilemma and generate courses of action), and scope (the model allows for the simultaneous assessment of a myriad of cross‐level variables).

Originality/value

The paper offers a comprehensive decision‐making model that can be used to examine ethical decisions in business settings, to investigate potential differences in decision‐making accuracy and ethical reasoning between groups and individuals, and to examine the impact of changing ethical climates in organizational strategy.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Fan Zhang, Peng Yin, Yuyang Liu and Jianmei Wang

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of pivot stiffness on the dynamic characteristics of tilting-pad journal bearings (TPJBs) and the stability of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of pivot stiffness on the dynamic characteristics of tilting-pad journal bearings (TPJBs) and the stability of the bearing-rotor system.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical numerical model is established, and the influences of pivot stiffness on TPJBs and a bearing-rotor system are analyzed. Then, two kinds of pivot structures with different stiffness are designed and the vibration characteristics are tested on the vertical rotor bearing test bench.

Findings

The pivot stiffness has an obvious effect on the dynamic characteristics of the TPJBs and the stability of the bearing-rotor system. As a result of appropriate pivot stiffness, the critical speed and the vibration amplification factor can be reduced, the logarithmic decay rate and the stability of the rotor system can be effectively increased. While the journal whirl orbit is smoother and the rubbing is obviously reduced when the bearings have flexible pivots.

Originality/value

The influence of pivot stiffness on TPJBs and a vertical rotor-bearing system is studied by theoretical and experimental methods.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

Professor Gael McDonald

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407

Abstract

Details

European Business Review, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Linda M. Sama and R. Mitch Casselman

This paper seeks to examine the ethical dilemmas that emerge when offering microfinance services in BOP markets.

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1732

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the ethical dilemmas that emerge when offering microfinance services in BOP markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing the ethical lenses of deontology, teleology, virtue ethics and moral relativism, the paper builds on prior research on ethical issues in BOP markets and the ethics of microfinance to highlight the specific stakeholder impacts facing MFIs. Relevant literature and examples from practice are utilized to illustrate the different ethical perspectives.

Findings

In general, many of the key dilemmas represent themselves in the extreme poverty segment of the BOP where commercial business models have the least traction.

Research limitations/implications

Propositions are developed for the corrective actions in the paper which might allow future research to uncover differences in intervention success in different BOP markets.

Practical implications

The discussion of potential interventions for the various stakeholders may ameliorate criticisms of MFIs, suggest opportunities for cross‐sectoral partnerships and improve outreach to the poorest of the poor.

Social implications

For each issue addressed, this paper looks at the types of corrections that are made or called for through markets, government actions and civil society to respond to the negative impacts uncovered through our analysis.

Originality/value

The analysis in this paper contributes to the theoretical ethical literature with a very specific application to an emerging concern in the field of microfinance. It also offers prescriptive scenarios for industry and public policy makers. It challenges the ethics underlying businesses that wish to target the full spectrum of Base of Pyramid participants.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Damian Tago, Henrik Andersson and Nicolas Treich

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Abstract

Purpose

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents literature reviews for the period 2000–2013 on (i) the health effects of pesticides and on (ii) preference valuation of health risks related to pesticides, as well as a discussion of the role of benefit-cost analysis applied to pesticide regulatory measures.

Findings

This study indicates that the health literature has focused on individuals with direct exposure to pesticides, i.e. farmers, while the literature on preference valuation has focused on those with indirect exposure, i.e. consumers. The discussion highlights the need to clarify the rationale for regulating pesticides, the role of risk perceptions in benefit-cost analysis, and the importance of inter-disciplinary research in this area.

Originality/value

This study relates findings of different disciplines (health, economics, public policy) regarding pesticides, and identifies gaps for future research.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Graham Jones, Bernardita Chirino Chace and Justin Wright

Though there is broad agreement on the beneficial impact of diversity in management and leadership roles, much of the innovative capacity of an organization is realized at…

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3445

Abstract

Purpose

Though there is broad agreement on the beneficial impact of diversity in management and leadership roles, much of the innovative capacity of an organization is realized at the unit level in working teams. Recent research points to cultural diversity having an especially significant impact on innovation team performance. The reports also highlight the need for the optimal team operating principles to derive maximum benefit. To prepare such innovation teams for success, it is valuable to understand the dynamics of team diversity at the project level and the underlying barriers and opportunities presented.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the literature and case studies on cultural inputs to ideation and innovation, assessing team diversity through readily available instruments and the deployment of the science of team science (SciTS) principles in innovation teams.

Findings

The key learnings include the importance of establishing communication standards, SciTS principles, team assessment of thinking styles and the utility of cultural awareness instruments.

Practical implications

Diversity provides a creative advantage for innovation teams. However, team dynamics play an important role in maximizing these advantages, and cross-cultural competence of team members is required. Deployment of appropriate assessment tools and team methodologies enhances the likelihood of successful outcomes including in remote team settings.

Originality/value

Literature from diverse functional areas is summarized including the science of team science, organizational management, diversity and inclusion methodologies and ethnocultural dynamics. It provides pointers for the optimal formation and operating principles with highly culturally diverse teams.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Mário Pimentel and Joaquim Figueiras

The purpose of this paper is to present the implementation in a finite element (FE) code of a recently developed material model for the analysis of cracked reinforced…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the implementation in a finite element (FE) code of a recently developed material model for the analysis of cracked reinforced concrete (RC) panels. The model aims for the efficient nonlinear analysis of large‐scale structural elements that can be considered as an assembly of membrane elements, such as bridge girders, shear walls, transfer beams or containment structures.

Design/methodology/approach

In the proposed constitutive model, the equilibrium equations of the cracked membrane element are established directly at the cracks while the compatibility conditions are expressed in terms of spatially averaged strains. This allows the well‐known mechanical phenomena governing the behaviour of cracked concrete elements – such as aggregate interlock (including crack dilatancy effects), tensile fracture and bond shear stress transfer – to be taken into account in a transparent manner using detailed phenomenological models. The spatially averaged stress and strain fields are obtained as a by‐product of the local behaviour at the cracks and of the bond stress transfer mechanisms, allowing the crack spacing and crack widths to be obtained directly from first principles. The model is implemented in an FE code following a total formulation.

Findings

The fact that the updated stresses at the cracks are calculated explicitly from the current spatially averaged total strains and from the updated values of the state variables that are used to monitor damage evolution contributes to the robustness and efficiency of the implementation. Some application examples are presented illustrating the model capabilities and good estimates of the failure modes, failure loads, deformation capacity, cracking patterns and crack widths were achieved.

Originality/value

While being computationally efficient, the model describes the complex stress and strain fields developing in the membrane element, and retrieves useful information for the structural engineer, such as concrete and reinforcement failures as well as the crack spacing and crack widths.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Gilbert Kofi Adarkwah

This study examines the effect of host government interference with foreign investors’ assets on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow. The author hypothesizes that the…

Abstract

This study examines the effect of host government interference with foreign investors’ assets on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow. The author hypothesizes that the relationship between host government interference and FDI inflow takes the form of an inverted U shape. The author tests this hypothesis using data from the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes between 1996 and 2017. The results support the above hypothesis. While host government interference with the assets of a few foreign investors may not deter FDI inflow, frequent interferences, which result in an increasing number of host state–foreign investor disputes, reduces FDI inflow in a host country. The analysis also shows that when faced with an increasing host country uncertainty, investors adopt a wait and see strategy. However, how long investors wait depends on the economic situation of the host country. For high-income countries, investors wait until approximately 10 disputes before reducing investments level in a host country, while for low-income countries, this waiting period is a mere two disputes. The findings of this study suggest that countries seeking to attract more FDI should not interfere with the activities of foreign investors, however, if they do, disputes should be settled at home, not in international arbitration courts, because doing so frequently may poison the host environment and deter other foreign investors from investing in the host country.

Details

The Multiple Dimensions of Institutional Complexity in International Business Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-245-1

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Frank C. Butler and John A. Martin

This chapter explores how stress may manifest among non-family member employees, family member employees, and family firm founders in family firms during the startup…

Abstract

This chapter explores how stress may manifest among non-family member employees, family member employees, and family firm founders in family firms during the startup phases of the organization. Understanding how stress arises in family firm startups has received limited attention to date. Notably absent in the research is the understanding of how stress arises in non-family member employees, which is important to understand as non-family member employees often outnumber family member employees. As stress increases for the non-family member employee due to issues such as role ambiguity and conflict, negative outcomes resultant from this stress may increase the chances of the employee exhibiting withdrawal behaviors. It is suggested these outcomes increase the stress of the family firm entrepreneur and family members by increasing interrole and interpersonal conflicts and negatively impacting decision-making. These effects on the family members may adversely impact the family firm’s chances of performing well, thus decreasing its chances for survival. Recommendations for future research are also made.

Details

Entrepreneurial and Small Business Stressors, Experienced Stress, and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-397-8

Keywords

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