Search results

1 – 10 of over 7000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2017

Robert T. Palmer and Jameel Scott

Guided by the theoretical framework of human capital theory and using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, this chapter investigated labor market…

Abstract

Guided by the theoretical framework of human capital theory and using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, this chapter investigated labor market outcomes for graduates of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) compared to their non-HBCU counterparts. The results from this current study largely indicate that there are no significant disadvantages for Black graduate of HBCUs in terms of labor market outcomes. Moreover, under the premise of human capital theory, this study found that HBCUs serve as equivalent mechanisms for human capital attainment for Black students. This chapter concludes with limitations of the study as well as implications for future research.

Details

Black Colleges Across the Diaspora: Global Perspectives on Race and Stratification in Postsecondary Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-522-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Lyndel Judith Bates, Ashleigh Filtness and Barry Watson

Purpose – Driver education and licensing are two mechanisms used to reduce crash rates. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of these countermeasures and…

Abstract

Purpose – Driver education and licensing are two mechanisms used to reduce crash rates. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of these countermeasures and consider how simulators can be used to augment more traditional approaches.

Approach – A literature review was undertaken evaluating key concepts in driver licensing including graduated driver licensing (GDL), the role of parents in licensing, compliance and enforcement, driver testing and how the driver licensing system impacts on levels of unlicensed driving. Literature regarding driver education for individuals who have and not yet obtained a licence was also reviewed.

Findings – GDL is a successful countermeasure for reducing the crash rates of young novice drivers as it limits their exposure to higher risk situations. The support for driver education initiatives is mixed. As there are big differences between education programs, there is a need to consider each program on its own merits. Driving simulators provide a safe environment for novices to gain experience. In particular, they may be bifacial for development of hazard perception and visual scanning skills.

Practical Implications – GDL systems should be introduced where appropriate. Existing systems should be strengthened where possible by including additional, best-practice and restrictions. When considering driver education as a countermeasure, the type of program is very important. Education programs that have been shown to increase crashes should not be introduced. Further research and development are necessary to ensure that driver education and licensing adequately equip novice drivers with the skills necessary to drive in the 21st century.

Details

Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2013

Reuben R. McDaniel, Dean J. Driebe and Holly Jordan Lanham

We discuss the impact of complexity science on the design and management of health care organizations over the past decade. We provide an overview of complexity science…

Abstract

Purpose

We discuss the impact of complexity science on the design and management of health care organizations over the past decade. We provide an overview of complexity science issues and their impact on thinking about health care systems, particularly with the rising importance of information systems. We also present a complexity science perspective on current issues in today’s health care organizations and suggest ways that this perspective might help in approaching these issues.

Approach

We review selected research, focusing on work in which we participated, to identify specific examples of applications of complexity science. We then take a look at information systems in health care organizations from a complexity viewpoint.

Findings

Complexity science is a fundamentally different way of understanding nature and has influenced the thinking of scholars and practitioners as they have attempted to understand health care organizations. Many scholars study health care organizations as complex adaptive systems and through this perspective develop new management strategies. Most important, perhaps, is the understanding that attention to relationships and interdependencies is critical for developing effective management strategies.

Research and practice implications

Increased understanding of complexity science can enhance the ability of researchers and practitioners to develop new ways of understanding and improving health care organizations.

Originality/value

This analysis opens new vistas for scholars and practitioners attempting to understand health care organizations as complex adaptive systems. The analysis holds value for those already familiar with this approach as well as those who may not be as familiar.

Details

Annual Review of Health Care Management: Revisiting The Evolution of Health Systems Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-715-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 July 2019

Claretha Hughes, Lionel Robert, Kristin Frady and Adam Arroyos

Abstract

Details

Managing Technology and Middle- and Low-skilled Employees
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-077-7

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Jerika C. Norona and Spencer B. Olmstead

Romantic dissolution is a common experience throughout the life course, particularly during emerging adulthood (ages 18–29). The purpose of this review was to summarize…

Abstract

Romantic dissolution is a common experience throughout the life course, particularly during emerging adulthood (ages 18–29). The purpose of this review was to summarize and critique theoretical approaches and empirical findings of the aftermath of dating relationship dissolution.

Article searches were conducted within PsycINFO. We utilized terms related to romantic relationship dissolution (i.e., breakup, romantic breakup, relationship termination, relationship dissolution, romantic dissolution, romantic termination, post-dissolution) in a search for key words. We narrowed the results further by limiting the search to include participants between the ages of 18 and 29.

Experiencing romantic dissolution can result in both positive and negative emotional reactions and behaviors, including personal growth and self-expansion as well as experiencing physical and emotional abuse from ex-partners. Furthermore, former romantic partners commonly form other types of friendships and casual sexual relationships after the termination of committed romantic relationships. Many theoretical frameworks are used to guide these investigations, and some articles lack a theoretical framework.

Developmental Systems Theory might be a theoretical framework that best shapes our investigations of romantic dissolution in dating relationships that occur in emerging adulthood.

Relationship education programs would be enhanced by discussing the developmental needs that are important for young people and the ways in which their romantic experiences can or cannot meet those needs. In addition to learning about how to have healthy romantic relationships, young people can also benefit from learning how to identify when romantic relationships should end, and how to end them successfully.

Details

Intimate Relationships and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-610-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1954

John H. Argyris

WE define as an open tube a thin‐walled structure, the cross‐section of which does not include any closed circuit. This property is common, for example, to the curved…

Abstract

WE define as an open tube a thin‐walled structure, the cross‐section of which does not include any closed circuit. This property is common, for example, to the curved channel, the interspar wing cut‐out and the panel stiffened with Z‐sections, illustrated in FIG. 1 (a, b, c). But the interspar cut‐out with nose cell (FIG. 1d) is not an open tube in the present definition. All structures discussed in this paper are assumed to be cylindrical and to have a constant cross‐section. It is relatively simple to extend the results to conical taper and longitudinally varying thickness, but this would be beyond the scope and space of the present analysis (see, however, ref. 5).

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2017

M. Christopher Brown and T. Elon Dancy

“Men make their own history,but they do not make it just as they please;they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselvesbut under circumstances directly

Abstract

“Men make their own history,

but they do not make it just as they please;

they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves

but under circumstances directly encountered,

given and transmitted from the past.”

–Karl Marx

“Men make their own history,

but they do not make it just as they please;

they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves

but under circumstances directly encountered,

given and transmitted from the past.”

Over one dozen books have been written about historically black colleges and universities over the last 15 years. However, not one of the volumes published addresses this cohort of institutions from a global dimension. Each of the books ignores the reality that there are institutions of higher education populated by persons of African descent scattered around the globe. Equally, the emergent literature is silent on issues of racial stratification; consequently, treating black colleges as homogenous monoliths. This quiesance ignores the important tension of racial oppression/white supremacy, social stratification, and the persistent hegemony of power in societies with black populations. In this commencing chapter, there are two primary explorations: (1) the particularities of race and identity in black colleges in the United States, and (2) the nexus between race and culture in black colleges outside of the United States. In order to properly contextualize this diorama, it is imperative to examine the meaning of diaspora, the realities of racial stratification, and the ways in which hegemony can be unsettled and usurped.

Details

Black Colleges Across the Diaspora: Global Perspectives on Race and Stratification in Postsecondary Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-522-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 1956

J.R. Palmer

AT the present time turbojet aircraft types which are capable of level flight Mach numbers well into the supersonic range are appearing in increasing numbers. Yet, while…

Abstract

AT the present time turbojet aircraft types which are capable of level flight Mach numbers well into the supersonic range are appearing in increasing numbers. Yet, while this represents in a sense a new phase in the evolution of piloted aircraft, from the point of view of the propulsion engineer it is rather the end of an era, in that hitherto the turbojet engines employed have been essentially subsonic engines suitably strengthened. Henceforth we may expect to see the use of engines specifically designed for the appropriate range of Mach number, and it is the purpose of this article to review some of the implications of this change of outlook in so far as they affect the prediction of engine performance.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 28 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2015

Latrica Best and W. Carson Byrd

Our primary aim is to discuss the variability that exists in the operationalization of race/ethnicity in research on genetic and biological markers. We employ Stuart…

Abstract

Purpose

Our primary aim is to discuss the variability that exists in the operationalization of race/ethnicity in research on genetic and biological markers. We employ Stuart Hall’s “floating signifiers” of race approach to explain the ambiguous manner in which researchers discuss the links between race and genetics.

Methodology/approach

We examine articles that use race/ethnicity and genetic or biological markers between 2000 and 2013 within three prominent genetic journals. We focused on original, empirical articles only. We utilize various race/ethnic-related search terms to obtain our sample and to categorize how terms were used.

Findings

A total of 336 articles fit our search criteria. The number of articles mentioning race/ethnicity and genetic or biological information increased over the time. A significant percentage of publications base their research on whites only. When discussions of race are included in studies, scientists often use multiple categories of race/ethnicity without much explanation.

Research limitations/implications

We omit non-research articles and commentary for each journal, which could contain important discussions regarding race and genetics. This work highlights how race/ethnicity can vary in application and interpretation.

Originality/value

Our discussion of race/ethnicity as “floating signifiers” adds a layer of complexity to the longstanding debate regarding the importance of race/ethnicity in genetic research. The “floating” nature of race/ethnicity underlines how subjective the characterizations of samples are and how possible interpretations of results for groups can impact health disparities research. Given the increased use of genetic data by social scientists, there is a need for more cross-disciplinary discussions on the race–gene relationship.

Details

Genetics, Health and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-581-4

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 7000