Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Pranav Chauhan, Arun K. Das, P.K. Nanda, Vishal Kumbhar and J.P. Yadav

Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is well known for its strong, hot, peppery taste and has many nutritional, pharmaceutical and traditional therapeutic uses. The aim of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is well known for its strong, hot, peppery taste and has many nutritional, pharmaceutical and traditional therapeutic uses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of different solvent extracts of black cumin seed to retard lipid and protein oxidation in raw ground pork meat during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C) for nine days.

Design/methodology/approach

Black cumin extracts (BCEs) were prepared using different solvents, namely, ethanol, water, ethanol:water (60:40) and methanol:hot water (60:40). Extracts were analysed for total phenolic content (TPC), 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Based on the results, water extract (WE) and ethanol–water extract (EHWE) of black cumin were selected and incorporated at 1.5 per cent into freshly minced pork meat and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 100 ppm), in retarding lipid and protein oxidation. Treated and control samples were aerobically packed in low-density polyethylene bags for analysis of various parameters (pH, colour and odour score, peroxide, lipid and protein oxidation) during nine-day refrigerated storage study.

Findings

Results showed that BCEs had a good amount of TPC (4.4-7.4 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and also DPPH scavenging activities (33.96-44.23 per cent), with WE and EHWE extracts showing highest reducing power and promising antioxidant capacity. Hence, BCEs (WE and EHWE) incorporated at 1.5 per cent into freshly minced pork meat was tested, compared to BHT (100 ppm) and control samples, in retarding lipid and protein oxidation during storage. In BCE-treated samples, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, free fatty acids, peroxide, formation of protein carbonyls and off-odour or rancid odour development were lower than control and values were comparable with BHT. Incorporation of BCE did not negatively affect the colour of ground pork.

Originality/value

BCEs (WE and EHWE) at 1.5 per cent inhibited protein and lipid oxidation and it could be exploited commercially as an effective alternative in retarding oxidative deterioration of meat products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Xiaoqing Chen, Xinwang Liu and Zaiwu Gong

The purpose of this paper is to combine the uncertain methods of type-2 fuzzy sets and data envelopment analysis (DEA) evaluation model together. A new type-2 fuzzy DEA…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to combine the uncertain methods of type-2 fuzzy sets and data envelopment analysis (DEA) evaluation model together. A new type-2 fuzzy DEA efficiency assessment method is established. Then the proposed procedure is applied to the poverty alleviation problem.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method is the DEA model, which is an effective method for efficiency assessment of social–economic systems. Considering the existence of the same efficiency values that cannot be ranked in the proposed DEA model, the balance index is introduced to solve the ranking problem of decision-making units effectively.

Findings

The results show that the proposed method can not only measure the efficiency of the existence of uncertain information but also deal with the ranking of multiple efficient decision-making units.

Originality/value

This paper selects type-2 fuzzy DEA model to express a lot of uncertain information in efficiency evaluation problems. We use the parameter decomposition method of type-2 fuzzy programming or the type-2 expectation values indirectly. The balance index is proposed to further distinguish the multiple effective decision-making units. Furthermore, this paper selects rural poverty alleviation in Hainan Province as a case study to verify the feasibility of the method. The relative efficiency values in different years are calculated and analyzed.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Ignacio Contreras

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a mathematical method for the evaluation of the relative efficiency of a set of alternatives, which produces multiple outputs by…

Abstract

Purpose

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a mathematical method for the evaluation of the relative efficiency of a set of alternatives, which produces multiple outputs by consuming multiple inputs. Each unit is evaluated on the basis of the weighted output over the weighted input ratio with a free selection of weights and is allowed to select its own weighting scheme for both inputs and outputs so that the individual evaluation is optimized. However, several situations can be found in which the variability between weighting profiles is unsuitable. In those cases, it seems more appropriate to consider a common vector of weights. The purpose of this paper is to include a systematic revision of the existing literature regarding the procedures to determine a common set of weights (CSW) in the DEA context. The contributions are classified with respect to the methodology and to the main aim of the procedure. The discussion and findings of this paper provide insights into future research on the topic.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper includes a systematic revision of the existing literature about the procedures to determine a CSW in the DEA context. The contributions are classified with respect to the methodology and to the main aim of the procedure.

Findings

The discussion and findings of the literature review might insights into future research on the topic.

Originality/value

This papers revise the state of the art on the topic of models with CSW in DEA methodology and propose a systematic classification of the contributions with respect to several criteria. The paper would be useful for both theoretical and practical future research on the topic.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Pankaj Mandpe, Bala Prabhakar, Hunny Gupta and Pravin Shende

The present study aims to summarize different non-invasive techniques for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in diabetic patients using glucose-oxidase biosensors. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to summarize different non-invasive techniques for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in diabetic patients using glucose-oxidase biosensors. In diabetic patients, the self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG) levels through minimally invasive techniques provides a quick method of measuring their BG concentration, unlike conventional laboratory measurements. The drawbacks of minimally invasive techniques include physical pain, anxiety and reduced patient compliance. To overcome these limitations, researchers shifted their attention towards the development of a pain-free and non-invasive glucose monitoring system, which showed encouraging results.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews the development of minimally and non-invasive method for continuous glucose level monitoring in diabetic or hyperglycemic patients. Specifically, glucose monitoring using non-invasive techniques, such as spectroscopy-based methods, polarimetry, fluorescence, electromagnetic variations, transdermal extraction-based methods and using body fluids, has been discussed. The various strategies adopted for improving the overall specificity and performance of biosensors are discussed.

Findings

In conclusion, the technology of glucose oxidase-based biosensors for glucose level monitoring is becoming a strong competitor, probably because of high specificity and selectivity, low cost and increased patient compliance. Many industries currently working in this field include Google, Novartis and Microsoft, which demonstrates the significance and strong market potential of self-monitored glucose-oxidase-based biosensors in the near future.

Originality/value

This review paper summarizes comprehensive strategies for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in diabetic patients using non-invasive glucose-oxidase biosensors. Non-invasive techniques received significant research interest because of high sensitivity and better patient compliance, unlike invasive ones. Although the results from these innovative devices require frequent calibration against direct BG data, they might be a preferable candidate for future CGM. However, the challenges associated with designing accurate level sensors to biomonitor BG data easily and painlessly needs to be addressed.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Rajesh Pathak, Satish Kumar and Ranajee Ranajee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cross-sectional predictive power and the information content of volatility smirks for future stock returns using single stock options.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cross-sectional predictive power and the information content of volatility smirks for future stock returns using single stock options.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses Fama-Macbeth procedure and portfolio approach to investigate the predictability and informativeness in a setup when options settlement style is changed from American to European.

Findings

The study reports that the volatility smirk of European style options, unlike American style options, predict the underlying cross-sectional equity returns. Firms with steepest volatility smirk underperform firms with flatter volatility smirks, by an average of 3.28 and 4.01 per cent annually for American and European options, respectively. The results are robust to the control of idiosyncratic and systematic risk factors.

Practical implications

The results confirm that a trader with negative information prefers to trade out-of-the-money put options. The more pronounced results of European options designate the trader’s preference to less risky European style stock options. Results are robust and signify the delay of equity market in incorporating information impounded in the volatility smirk.

Originality/value

Very few studies examine smirk and returns relationship and to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study exists that examine the unique case of change in options style and its role in affecting relationship between smirk and future returns.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Roopteja Tamatam, Pankaj Dutta, Goutam Dutta and Stefan Lessmann

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the relative efficiencies of banks of the Indian domestic banking sector by employing various models of data envelopment analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the relative efficiencies of banks of the Indian domestic banking sector by employing various models of data envelopment analysis (DEA) using the panel data of the recent decade (2008–2017). The paper provides a comparative analysis of these models based on the efficiency outputs. It compares the performance of banks based on their ownership and sizes and studies the decade-long trend of productivity using Malmquist indices.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper estimates overall technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies of 21 public sector banks and 17 private banks. It compares the descriptive statistics of efficiency estimates found out through 18 different DEA models and compares them using two non-parametric statistical tests. It studies the difference in efficiencies based on ownership and size by applying the same statistical tests. It employs the Malmquist index method to study the technological and technical progress in the banks’ productivity over the decade of FY 2008–FY 2017.

Findings

During FY 2016–2017, only 9 out of 38 banks were overall technically efficient with the whole sample having a mean overall technical inefficiency of 5 percent with scale inefficiency contributing more than pure technical inefficiency. The comparative study ascertains that private sector and public sector banks (PSBs) possess efficiencies that are similar based on super-efficiency slack-based model – variable returns to scale and non-oriented, a model that the authors argue to be the most suitable for the real-life business banking scenarios whereas the private sector banks possess better efficiency than the PSBs. The Malmquist indices prove that private sector banks have a higher increase in productivity based on both technological progress and efficiency improvements whereas PSBs had a loss of efficiency and comparatively less improvement in technology.

Research limitations/implications

This study has a limitation of choosing a single model of inputs and outputs. Improved insights can be drawn by employing more models based on different inputs and outputs. Further, relevance of each input and output can be examined using a regression-based feedback mechanism (Ouenniche and Carrales, 2018). The influence of environmental factors on the efficiencies can be studied using second-stage regression models and the relationship between efficiency scores and financial ratios can be examined.

Originality/value

This study is based on the panel data of the recent decade (2008–2017) and provides insights into the efficiency scenario of the Indian banking industry and how it changed over the past decade, to the leadership of banks, the banking regulators and the policy makers. The comparative analysis of DEA models based on a sample of Indian banks is first of its kind in the Indian context and helps the researchers to select an appropriate model and delve into further research on the same.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Greyce Luci Bernardo, Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença, Maria Cristina Marino Calvo, Giovanna M.R. Fiates and Heather Hartwell

– The purpose of this paper is to present a first proposal of a healthy dietary diversity index to evaluate meals in self-service restaurants.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a first proposal of a healthy dietary diversity index to evaluate meals in self-service restaurants.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional, descriptive pilot study in a Brazilian buffet-style restaurant. The study group was selected by systematic sampling and consisted of 678 individuals aged 16-81 years, who were regular diners at a selected restaurant during lunchtime. Photographs were used to assess food choices and a sociodemographic questionnaire was administered to the subjects. A healthy dietary diversity model was created following WHO recommendations and the Brazilian Food Guide. A consensus workshop was conducted with experts to discuss and classify certain dishes as more or less healthy (high/low energy density). The model attributed negative (−3.0-0.0) and positive (0.0-12.0) scores to different food groups. Higher scores meant greater diversity on the plate, and therefore a greater chance of a healthy meal (=9.0), while a lower score reflected a higher variety of energy-dense foods, such as fried dishes (=6.0).

Findings

Most diner’s plates (65.3 per cent) obtained low diversity score indexes (=6) and were considered inadequate, represented the dishes where intake should be controlled from a nutritional viewpoint (over caloric meal). There was a significant association between healthy diversity scores (=9.0) and low variety of high energy density dishes on the plates.

Originality/value

This method of assessing the healthy dietary diversity of a main meal could be tested as an innovative model for investigating the food choices of individuals who eat away from home.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Munir Anil, Yusuf Durmus and Zekai Tarakci

Celiac disease patients cannot consume gluten-containing diets; thus, gluten-free products should be offered to meet the nutritional needs of these patients. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Celiac disease patients cannot consume gluten-containing diets; thus, gluten-free products should be offered to meet the nutritional needs of these patients. The purpose of this study was to produce gluten-free tarhana for celiac disease patients using corn flour instead of wheat flour and investigate some physicochemical properties of tarhana. Hydrocolloids were used to compensate for technological deficiencies caused by the absence of gluten.

Design/methodology/approach

Hydrocolloids including guar gum, xanthan gum and locust bean gum were added at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% to the corn flour. The substituted corn flour samples were used to produce tarhana powder.

Findings

The pH and acidity measurements were carried out in 0th, 24th and 48th h of fermentation, and for all samples, the pH gradually decreased during fermentation, whereas the acidity increased. According to the color measurements (L, a and b values), it was observed that there was no significant difference (p = 0.588) between the gums in terms of L values in tarhana dough samples. Water retention capacity values of control, guar gum 1%, xanthan gum 1% and locust bean gum 1% were found to be 1.1, 1.1, 0.7 and 1.2 mL/g, respectively. The viscosity measurements were carried out at three different temperatures (30°C, 45°C and 60°C), and the viscosity values were found to decrease significantly (p = 0.000) with the increase in temperature for all the samples studied. The highest viscosity values were obtained by 1.0% xanthan gum (4,333 mPa s) and 0.5% locust bean gum (3,575 mPa s) added tarhana samples for 3 rpm at 30°C. Xanthan gum addition showed the lowest foam capacity values (0.04 mL/mL) among the samples. The samples with guar gum, xanthan gum and locust bean gum are recommended with regard to consistency and foam stability in the production of tarhana.

Originality/value

This study confirms that the use of gums in tarhana, a gluten-free system, is beneficial for the technological aspect. The unfavorable properties that can be seen because of the absence of gluten in corn flour tarhana can be compensated with the use of hydrocolloids, and tarhana can be recommended to celiac disease patients.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Sofia Bogdan, Cecilia Deya, Oscar Micheloni, Natalia Bellotti and Roberto Romagnoli

This paper aims to study five vegetables extracts as possible additives to control bacterial growth on indoor waterborne paints. The extracts were obtained from the weeds…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study five vegetables extracts as possible additives to control bacterial growth on indoor waterborne paints. The extracts were obtained from the weeds Raphanus sativus, Rapistrum rugosum, Sinapis arvensis, Nicotiana longiflora and Dipsacus fullonum, used in traditional medicine as antimicrobial compounds.

Design/methodology/approach

Weeds extracts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV–Vis spectrophotometry. Their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was also determined. Afterward, selected extracts were incorporated in waterborne paint formulations. The paints’ antimicrobial activity was assessed against S. aureus, monitoring biofilm formation by environmental scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

As a general rule, results showed that tested paints were efficient in inhibiting biofilm formation, especially that formulated with Nicotiana longiflora.

Practical implications

The tested paints can be used to protect walls from microbial colonization, which shortened coatings’ useful life by discoloration and/or degradation. Concomitantly, indoor microbial colonization by aerosols could be also diminished. This is especially important in places that should have high standards of environmental hygiene, as in the food industry, health-care and sanitary centers.

Originality/value

The main value of this research was to study the antimicrobial activity of weeds extracts and to incorporate them in waterborne paints to diminish bacterial biofilm formation. This biofilm discolors and degrades the paint, and causes health problems. The use of natural compounds in coatings is increasing because of the convenience of using renewable sources, such as natural antimicrobials, in paint formulations.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Alok Mishra and Amrita Poonia

This paper aims to review the recent advances in processing and utilization of Madhuca longifolia flowers to address its potential as an industrial ingredient.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the recent advances in processing and utilization of Madhuca longifolia flowers to address its potential as an industrial ingredient.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes the harvesting practices of flowers and recent works on the value addition.

Findings

Mahua flowers are rich source of natural sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.) and hence are deliberately used for liquor production by tribal besides various food products, namely, Mahua ladoo, barfi, kheer, sweet puri and as grain staple. Mahuain medicine has been curing people since ages such as in rakhtpitta, diarrhoea and skin diseases and as aphrodisiac, galactagogue, carminative, antihelmenthic, antibacterial and antioxidant. Mahua candy, cake, ready to serve beverages, toffee, squash, ladoo, bars, etc. have been developed as value-added products. However, such a wonderful nature’s gift remains underused due to post harvest spoilage.

Practical implications

Improvement in storage facilities and processing of flowers after harvesting and drying will lead to enhanced availability of flowers for industrial purposes for food, feed and fodder. More value-added products can be prepared by the preparation of flower-juice concentrate, as well as efforts are made to produce powder from the flowers.

Originality/value

Post-harvest spoilage of Mahua flowers due to improper collection and handling practices, and filthy storage conditions is the major limitation of Mahua flowers to be used as a potential industrial ingredient. An improvement in collection, handling and pre-processing practices can diversify its use from liquor production to various value-added and functional food products at an industrial scale.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000