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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1940

J.P. Lawrie, Rodolfo Margaria and h med.

THE medical problems of flying were first seriously tackled during the latter part of the first world war, when it became obvious that mechanical construction was…

Abstract

THE medical problems of flying were first seriously tackled during the latter part of the first world war, when it became obvious that mechanical construction was indivisible with pilot performance. Research has since proceeded along two main lines: pre‐selection of personnel for flying duties and the maintenance of the physiological efficiency of flying personnel. There is no doubt that the work accomplished is proving invaluable in these times of extended air force expansion and added interest is therefore given to the report of the symposium held at Washington D.C., at which Air‐Commodore H. E. Whittingham represented Great Britain.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1940

Wieslaw Stepniewski

IN the early stages of design, when the general conception of the aeroplane is discussed, it is important for designers to realize the numerical influence of changes in…

Abstract

IN the early stages of design, when the general conception of the aeroplane is discussed, it is important for designers to realize the numerical influence of changes in the design parameters (characteristics) upon the performances.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 12 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Bryony Jardine, Jenni Romaniuk, John G. Dawes and Virginia Beal

This paper aims to investigate factors associated with higher or lower television audience retention from one programme aired sequentially after another, referred to as…

1397

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate factors associated with higher or lower television audience retention from one programme aired sequentially after another, referred to as lead-in audience retention. Lead-in is a primary determinant of television programme audience size.

Design/methodology/approach

The study models a series of factors linked to lead-in audience retention, such as rating of the second programme, genre match and competitor options. The hypothesised relationships are tested across over 1,000 pairs of programmes aired in the UK and Australia, using multivariate linear regression models.

Findings

The study finds the factors consistently related to significantly higher lead-in audience retention are the rating of the second programme in the pair and news genre match in programming. Factors consistently linked to lower audience retention include the rating of the initial programme and the number of competitor options starting at the same time as the second programme.

Practical implications

The findings help television networks understand drivers of lead-in audience retention. Knowledge that can be used to inform the design of tailored marketing plans for programmes based on schedule, timing and adjacent programming. Further, the findings help advertisers and media buyers with scheduling television advertising to achieve reach or frequency objectives.

Originality/value

No previous studies have comprehensively combined all four factors driving lead-in audience retention into a single model. The testing across multiple markets adds to the robustness of the findings. In particular, the discoveries about the impact of competitor network activities and genre build considerably on past research.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Heather McIlveen, Clare Abraham and Gillian Armstrong

Manufacturers are producing an extensive range of added value products which are formulated using meat replacers but which are designed to appeal to a wide range of…

2596

Abstract

Manufacturers are producing an extensive range of added value products which are formulated using meat replacers but which are designed to appeal to a wide range of consumers, above and beyond the “traditional vegetarian” market. This study considered the relatively recent impact of such products on the Northern Ireland market, with a particular emphasis on the quality and acceptability of Quorn based products. A small‐ scale questionnaire (n = 100) considered customer perceptions of meat replacers, whilst the acceptance of selected tofu, textured vegetable protein (TVP) and Quorn products was measured using selected sensory evaluation techniques. The study concluded that Quorn can offer similar texture and flavour attributes to those consumers who wish to avoid meat products for health and/or safety reasons. It is this customer base which needs to be targeted, but it must be noted that negative perceptions of meat replacers still exist. Therefore, further developments need to be supported by appropriate marketing strategies which will both attract and educate consumers and help to achieve a sustained level of purchasing.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 99 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Christian Kwaku Osei, Edward Nketiah-Amponsah and Monica Puoma Lambon-Quayefio

In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) revised upwards the recommended contacts for antenatal care (ANC) by expectant mothers with a health provider from a minimum…

Abstract

Purpose

In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) revised upwards the recommended contacts for antenatal care (ANC) by expectant mothers with a health provider from a minimum of four to eight over the pregnancy period. Although Ghana is yet to adopt the new recommendation, some women choose to adhere to the new protocol because of its enormous health benefits to the expecting mother and the unborn child. As part of ANC, family planning services are also provided to ensure child spacing and birth control. To reduce health costs, government introduced the free maternal health policy, Community-based Health Planning Services, Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty and established the Northern Development Authority to increase access to healthcare and also create wealth. Given these interventions, the study hypothesizes that household wealth would not have a significant influence on antenatal visits and modern contraceptive use. Therefore, this paper aims to examine whether household wealth would play any significant role on the new minimum contacts proxied by antenatal visits and also on the use of modern contraceptives as a family planning counselling tool during ANC visits. The study further examines a possible heterogeneity effect of paternal characteristic on maternal health service utilization.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used data from the most recent Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS, 2014). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the effects of household wealth on the number of antenatal visits and modern contraceptive use. The bivariate analysis employed the use of chi-square test whiles, the multivariate analysis involved estimations using logistic regressions.

Findings

The findings show that household wealth would play a critical role given the revised WHO minimum ANC contacts by expectant mothers. Household wealth exerts a positive and significant effect on ANC for all wealth quintiles for women who attended at least eight ANC visits, but was insignificant for the poorer and middle quintiles of those who attended four to seven visits. Wealth, however, had an insignificant relationship with modern contraceptive use. Generally, education, age, birth order, media exposure as well as geographical locations had a significant influence on both ANC visits and modern contraceptive use. The study further revealed a heterogeneous effect on ANC attendance. In particular, despite the relatively poor conditions, women in rural areas whose partners/husbands have attained a minimum of secondary education are about twice more likely to attend 4–7 antenatal visits compared to their counterparts whose husbands/partners are without education. Hence, a holistic health education, which includes husbands/partners in the rural areas as well as strengthening interventions that improve livelihoods, is crucial.

Originality/value

Health guidelines are constantly reviewed, and government policies must adapt accordingly. This paper looks at the significant role household wealth still plays on modern contraceptive use and ANC visits, given the revised WHO minimum ANC contacts and uniquely underscores the influence of paternal characteristics on the utilization of these maternal health services.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Gavin Lawrie, Nur Anisah Abdullah, Christopher Bragg and Guillaume Varlet

This paper aims to assess the utility of an approach to the design of multiple Balanced Scorecards within large/complex organisations, consider the relevance of “emergent…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the utility of an approach to the design of multiple Balanced Scorecards within large/complex organisations, consider the relevance of “emergent strategising” in this kind of strategy implementation and explore project organisation and wider coordination issues that impact this type of work.

Design/methodology/approach

A “research-oriented – action research” approach has been adopted, comprising qualitative observations of an ongoing programme within a major organisation in the Middle East. The case is based on feedback obtained from key actors (participants, facilitators) and the analysis of documentation produced by the project.

Findings

Over four years, the project engaged directly with over 200 managers from the organisation’s 35 most senior management units. Its purpose was to align the strategic aims of each unit with those of the organisation and introduce a new form of strategic control. The paper shows that consensus-forming and creation of locally relevant strategic agendas can be usefully and successfully embedded in a large-scale strategic control and alignment programme. The paper notes the large resource implications and duration of such programmes, and the challenges of integrating the resulting processes with those already in place. The paper concludes that for the case organisation, the resource investment appears to have generated useful outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The project relates to a continuing programme within the client organisation that was not explicitly established before it started as an action-research activity. This has limited and constrained the quality of the information reported.

Originality/value

The scale of the project, the use of design methods that emphasis consensus forming and local relevance provide novel information and insights.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Jennifer Seddon, Sarah Wadd, Lawrie Elliott and Iolo Madoc-Jones

No studies have evaluated the relationship between cognitive impairment and alcohol treatment outcomes amongst older drinkers. This study aims to explore the extent of…

Abstract

Purpose

No studies have evaluated the relationship between cognitive impairment and alcohol treatment outcomes amongst older drinkers. This study aims to explore the extent of cognitive impairment amongst older adults seeking alcohol treatment and examine the relationship between cognitive impairment, treatment retention and alcohol use following treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used data from the Drink Wise Age Well programme; an alcohol intervention service for older adults (aged 50+). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to screen for cognitive impairment; alcohol use was assessed using the alcohol use disorders identification test.

Findings

In total, 531 participants completed the assessment at treatment entry. Over half the sample were male (57%), with a mean age of 60 years (Standard deviation: 7.09). Almost half (48.4%) had cognitive impairment at the entry to treatment: 51.6% had a normal cognitive function, 41.4% had mild cognitive impairment, 5.8% had moderate cognitive impairment and 1.1% had severe cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment was not associated with increased treatment drop-out and was not predictive of alcohol use following treatment. Alcohol treatment was associated with a significant improvement in cognitive functioning.

Originality/value

This study suggests there may be a significant amount of unidentified cognitive impairment amongst older adults attending alcohol treatment. Assessment and routine screening for cognitive impairment in drug and alcohol services may help in care planning and setting treatment goals; in the absence of routine screening opportunities for treatment planning and intervention may be missed.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1913

We have observed in the reports of those engaged in the administration of the Acts several references to the practice of milking so that a portion of the milk is left in…

Abstract

We have observed in the reports of those engaged in the administration of the Acts several references to the practice of milking so that a portion of the milk is left in the udder of the cow, this portion being removed subsequently and not included in the milk sent out to customers. The inspector for the southern division of the county of Northampton reports that on a sample of milk being found deficient in fat to the extent of 17 per cent., a further sample was taken at the time of milking when a milkman was found to be not properly “stripping” the cows. He was warned. The analyst for the county of Notts writes: “The first strippings obtained before the milk glands have been normally excited by the milking are very low in fat yet are “genuine” milk in the sense that nothing has been added to or taken from it. It is nonsense to talk of genuine milk in the sense that everything that comes from the udder of the cow is to be taken as genuine milk fit for sale.” In a case tried before the Recorder of Middlesbrough, one witness said that among some farmers it was a common practice not to “strip” cows until after the milk was sent away.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1913

The question of the best commercial method of retailing milk requires to be dealt with from the various standpoints of the different classes of milk vendors.

Abstract

The question of the best commercial method of retailing milk requires to be dealt with from the various standpoints of the different classes of milk vendors.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

1 – 10 of 356