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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

J.M. Bewley, Boehlje, A.W. Gray, H. Hogeveen, S.J. Kenyon, S.D. Eicher and M.M. Schutz

Automated body condition scoring (BCS) through extraction of information from digital images has been demonstrated to be feasible; and commercial technologies are being…

Abstract

Purpose

Automated body condition scoring (BCS) through extraction of information from digital images has been demonstrated to be feasible; and commercial technologies are being developed. The primary objective of this research was to identify the factors that influence the potential profitability of investing in an automated BCS system.

Design/methodology/approach

An expert opinion survey was conducted to provide estimates for potential improvements associated with technology adoption. A stochastic simulation model of a dairy system, designed to assist dairy producers with investment decisions for precision dairy farming technologies was utilized to perform a net present value (NPV) analysis. Benefits of technology adoption were estimated through assessment of the impact of BCS on the incidence of ketosis, milk fever, and metritis, conception rate at first service, and energy efficiency.

Findings

Improvements in reproductive performance had the largest influence on revenues followed by energy efficiency and then by disease reduction. The impact of disease reduction was less than anticipated because the ideal BCS indicated by experts resulted in a simulated increase in the proportion of cows with BCS at calving 3.50. The estimates for disease risks and conception rates, obtained from literature, however, suggested that this increase would result in increased disease incidence. Stochastic variables that had the most influence on NPV were: variable cost increases after technology adoption; the odds ratios for ketosis and milk fever incidence and conception rates at first service associated with varying BCS ranges; uncertainty of the impact of ketosis, milk fever, and metritis on days open, unrealized milk, veterinary costs, labor, and discarded milk; and the change in the percentage of cows with BCS at calving 3.25 before and after technology adoption. The deterministic inputs impacting NPV were herd size, management level, and level of milk production. Investment in this technology may be profitable but results were very herd‐specific. A simulation modeling a deterministic 25 percent decrease in the percentage of cows with BCS at calving ≤3.25 demonstrated a positive NPV in 86.6 percent of 1,000 iterations.

Originality/value

This investment decision can be analyzed with input of herd‐specific values using this model.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Irene Kobler, Alfred Angerer and David Schwappach

Since the publication of the report “To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System” by the US Institute of Medicine in 2000, much has changed with regard to patient…

Abstract

Since the publication of the report “To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System” by the US Institute of Medicine in 2000, much has changed with regard to patient safety. Many of the more recent initiatives to improve patient safety target the behavior of health care staff (e.g., training, double-checking procedures, and standard operating procedures). System-based interventions have so far received less attention, even though they produce more substantial improvements, being less dependent on individuals’ behavior. One type of system-based intervention that can benefit patient safety involves improvements to hospital design. Given that people’s working environments affect their behavior, good design at a systemic level not only enables staff to work more efficiently; it can also prevent errors and mishaps, which can have serious consequences for patients. While an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the effect of hospital design on patient safety, this knowledge is not easily accessible to clinicians, practitioners, risk managers, and other decision-makers, such as designers and architects of health care facilities. This is why the Swiss Patient Safety Foundation launched its project, “More Patient Safety by Design: Systemic Approaches for Hospitals,” which is presented in this chapter.

Details

Structural Approaches to Address Issues in Patient Safety
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-085-6

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

J.M. Bewley, Boehlje, A.W. Gray, H. Hogeveen, S.J. Kenyon, S.D. Eicher and M.M. Schutz

The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm system within a partial budgeting framework. A primary objective was to establish a flexible, user‐friendly, farm‐specific, decision‐making tool for dairy producers or their advisers and technology manufacturers.

Design/methodology/approach

The basic deterministic model was created in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft, Seattle, Washington). The @Risk add‐in (Palisade Corporation, Ithaca, New York) for Excel was employed to account for the stochastic nature of key variables within a Monte Carlo simulation. Net present value was the primary metric used to assess the economic profitability of investments. The model was composed of a series of modules, which synergistically provide the necessary inputs for profitability analysis. Estimates of biological relationships within the model were obtained from the literature in an attempt to represent an average or typical US dairy. Technology benefits were appraised from the resulting impact on disease incidence, disease impact, and reproductive performance. In this paper, the model structure and methodology were described in detail.

Findings

Examples of the utility of examining the influence of stochastic input and output prices on the costs of culling, days open, and disease were examined. Each of these parameters was highly sensitive to stochastic prices and deterministic inputs.

Originality/value

Decision support tools, such as this one, that are designed to investigate dairy business decisions may benefit dairy producers.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Joanita Kataike, Durga Prasad Venkata Modekurti, Eric Butali, David Magumba, Andrew Ronnie Mugenyi, Adalbert Aine-Omucunguzi and Xavier Gellynck

Effective rural agribusiness development requires dedicated training programmes therefore, this paper is an attempt to investigate smallholder farmers’ TNs in the dairy…

Abstract

Purpose

Effective rural agribusiness development requires dedicated training programmes therefore, this paper is an attempt to investigate smallholder farmers’ TNs in the dairy agribusiness sector. The purpose of this paper is to study a bigger research project of the dairy value chain in agribusiness framework in the Rwenzori region.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample size of 100 dairy farmers were randomly selected from two Districts in the Rwenzori region. The descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) provided a basis for discussion. Furthermore, parametric Pearson coefficient test was conducted to examine the smallholder farmers’ TNs and assess its association with selected socio-demographic characteristics of the dairy farmers.

Findings

The analysis indicated that dairy farmers expressed the need for a training program. Most frequently requested topics include: fodder cultivation, quality and safe milk handling, milk marketing, calf feeding and rearing, animal nutrition and financial literacy out of 12 topics. The least desired TNs was record keeping.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to the understanding of dairy farmers’ TNs.

Practical implications

The identified 12 key training intervention areas for the dairy farmers inform policymakers Dairy Development Authority and other development bodies in the Rwenzori region to address the challenges and improve smallholder dairy farming practices.

Originality/value

The study applies a synthesis review to identify theoretically acceptable variables that measure smallholder farmers’ TNs in the dairy agribusiness. The paper also shares the empirical evidence of a pioneering attempt to identify smallholder dairy farmers’ TNs in Uganda.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Tom Blickman

This chapter looks at the past, present and future of international cannabis control required by the UN drug control conventions in the post-2016 United Nations General…

Abstract

This chapter looks at the past, present and future of international cannabis control required by the UN drug control conventions in the post-2016 United Nations General Assembly Special Session era with an eye on the next High Level Ministerial Segment (HLMS) at the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs in 2019, and beyond. From a policy analysis perspective, the author meanders through the increasing tendency to legally regulate recreational cannabis markets notwithstanding the obligation enshrined in the UN drug control conventions to limit cannabis exclusively for ‘medical and scientific’ purposes. Taking into account relevant national and international developments, the chapter describes how the growing discomfort with the status of cannabis and the prohibitive and punitive approach stemming from the international drug control regime went through a process from soft to hard defections of the treaty obligations. The case of the Netherlands demonstrates the difficulty faced by reform-minded states in reconciling their wish for a different cannabis control mechanism with their obligations under international law, resulting in an incomplete regulation of its coffee-shop system, where small amounts of cannabis are tolerated for sale, but where the illicit supply to the shops remained unregulated. Subsequent more wide-ranging reforms to regulate cannabis from seed to sale in Uruguay, several US States and – in 2018 – in Canada, are clearly violating the obligations of the UN drug control conventions. Nevertheless, the HLMS will likely leave the elephant in the room untouched. The emerging paradigm shift regarding cannabis shows that a modernisation of the UN drug control regime is long overdue. This chapter discusses some of the options available.

Details

Collapse of the Global Order on Drugs: From UNGASS 2016 to Review 2019
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-488-6

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Jonas von Hoffmann

Both Bolivia and Uruguay broke ranks with the global drug prohibition regime by introducing novel drug policies. State control of the production and supply of coca and…

Abstract

Both Bolivia and Uruguay broke ranks with the global drug prohibition regime by introducing novel drug policies. State control of the production and supply of coca and cannabis represents a clear departure from both the spirit and the letter of the international drug conventions. Although, the rationale, processes and outcomes of policy change were distinctive in many regards, this chapter posits that there are conceptual resemblances. In both countries, the leadership of a charismatic and idiosyncratic president has to be considered. Furthermore, in both countries, mobilisation and activism were also decisive. Lastly, in both countries novel drug policy responded to specific problems that decision-makers faced. Approaching drug policy reforms in Bolivia and Uruguay in terms of personal leadership, mobilisation and policy problems provides a useful analytical first-cut to assess the continuity and change in drug policy observable elsewhere. Additionally, scrutinising the reasons and motivations for undertaking drug policy reform also allows to better understand each country’s behaviour on the international stage.

Details

Collapse of the Global Order on Drugs: From UNGASS 2016 to Review 2019
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-488-6

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2014

Caroline Norrie, Jenny Weinstein, Ray Jones, Rick Hood and Sadiq Bhanbro

The purpose of this paper is to report on the introduction of individual personal budgets for older people and people with mental health problems in one local authority…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the introduction of individual personal budgets for older people and people with mental health problems in one local authority (LA) in 2011.

Design/methodology/approach

Jenny Weinstein is a Hon Senior Lecturer at Kingston University, Professor Ray Jones and Rick Hood are based at the Joint Faculty of Health and Social Care, St George's, University of London and Kingston University, London, UK.A qualitative study is described in which structured interviews were carried out with participants belonging to each service user group. The study aimed to explore the following issues: first, service users’ experiences of the assessment process, second, whether service users wanted full control of their budgets and third, if personal budgets make a difference to quality of life.

Findings

xService users (n=7 older people and carers; n=7 people with mental health problems) found the personal budgets system and assessment process difficult to understand and its administration complex. Older people in particular were reluctant to assume full control and responsibility for managing their own personal budget in the form of a Direct Payment. Participants in both groups reported their continued reliance on traditional home care or day care services. These findings were reported back to the LA to help staff review the implementation of personal budgets for these two user groups.

Research limitations/implications

Study participant numbers are low due to difficulties recruiting. Several potential participants were not interviewed due to their frailty.

Practical implications

Studies of this type are important for constructing local knowledge about national policies such as the implementation of personal budgets in social care.

Originality/value

Studies of this type are important for constructing local knowledge about national policies such as the implementation of personal budgets in social care.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2019

Kylie Baldwin

Abstract

Details

Egg Freezing, Fertility and Reproductive Choice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-483-1

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Abstract

Details

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Roberto M. Fernandez and Roman V. Galperin

Recent labor market research has called into question whether social capital effects are causal, or are spuriously due to the influence of social homophily. This essay…

Abstract

Recent labor market research has called into question whether social capital effects are causal, or are spuriously due to the influence of social homophily. This essay adopts the demand-side perspective of organizations to examine the causal status of social capital. In contrast with supply-side approaches, we argue that homophily is a key mechanism by which organizations derive social capital. We develop an approach to bolster inferences about the causal status of social capital, and illustrate these ideas using data from a retail bank.

Details

Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-751-1

Keywords

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