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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

K.J. Lewis, J.H. Aklian, A. Sharaby and J.D. Zook

Explains corrosion protection and how it works. Discusses the effect of environmental legislation on corrosion protective paints, which necessitates the removal of…

Abstract

Explains corrosion protection and how it works. Discusses the effect of environmental legislation on corrosion protective paints, which necessitates the removal of solvents and toxic additives, making the protection weaker. In order to remedy this one must determine how protection is provided, which involves the separation of barrier properties and electrochemical passivation. Describes methods and tests involved in this and discusses the results. Concludes with recommendations and a suggestion for further tests.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 68 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

MALCOLM P. ATKINSON

A survey of current work on database systems is presented. The area is divided into three main sectors: data models, data languages and support for database operations…

Abstract

A survey of current work on database systems is presented. The area is divided into three main sectors: data models, data languages and support for database operations. Data models are presented as the link between the database and the real world. Languages range from formal algebraic languages to attempts to use a dialogue in English to formulate queries. The support includes hardware for content addressing, database machines and software techniques for optimizing and evaluating group expressions. Mathematical models are used to organize this support. Throughout there is a tutorial component and evaluation, which in both cases is related to the application of database ideas to documentation.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Hatem Samaali, Fehmi Najar, Bouraoui Ouni and Slim Choura

– This paper aims to propose a novel design of an ohmic contact single-pole double-throw (SPDT) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microswitch for radio frequency applications.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a novel design of an ohmic contact single-pole double-throw (SPDT) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microswitch for radio frequency applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed microswitch (SPDT design) shares antenna between transmitter and receiver in a wireless sensor. An electrical voltage is used to create an electrostatic force that controls the ON/OFF states of the microswitch. First, the authors develop a mathematical model of the proposed microswitch and propose a reduced-order model of the design, based on the differential quadrature method, which fully incorporates the electrostatic force nonlinearities. The authors solve the static, transient and dynamic behavior and compare the results with finite element solutions. Then, the authors examine the dynamic solution of the switch under different actuation waveforms.

Findings

The obtained results showed a significant reduction in actuation voltage, pull-in bandwidth and switching time.

Originality/value

In this paper, a new design of SPDT MEMS switch is proposed, the SPDT switch needs low voltage to be actuated and it can be easily integrated with integrated circuits.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Jürgen Kai‐Uwe Brock and Josephine Yu Zhou

The term customer intimacy has been used both in academia and business, albeit lacking clear definition and empirical validation. The authors in this paper aim to develop…

Abstract

Purpose

The term customer intimacy has been used both in academia and business, albeit lacking clear definition and empirical validation. The authors in this paper aim to develop a measure of customer intimacy in business‐to‐business contexts and to assess its reliability and validity, as well as its relevance, within a nomological relationship marketing network.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi‐method (qualitative/exploratory and quantitative/confirmatory structural modelling), multi‐staged (test, re‐test) research approach is used and applied in the UK and Germany.

Findings

The results show that customer intimacy is a second order construct reflected by the three formative dimensions of mutual understanding, closeness, and value perception. The results also show that customer intimacy is a relevant relationship indicator, distinct from the central relationship indicators of trust and commitment. It impacts relationship commitment levels, customer induced word‐of‐mouth, repurchase intentions, information disclosure, customer availability, and leads to an advisor status with the customer. Moreover, customer intimacy mediates relationship marketing's central trust commitment link.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitations that should be addressed by future studies are: reliance on the key informant technique on one side of the supplier‐buyer dyad; cross‐sectional design.

Practical implications

This study shows that achieving and managing customer intimacy is a relevant managerial goal and task for firms and shows managers how it can be measured and managed.

Originality/value.

This study, for the first time, presents a measure for customer intimacy and assesses its quality and impact empirically. The measure will be of significant value in making customer‐centric, relationship management approaches more accountable.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Nicole Ponder, Betsy Bugg Holloway and John D. Hansen

This paper aims to draw from intimacy theory in examining the mediating effects of interactive communication and social bonds on the trust–commitment relationship.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to draw from intimacy theory in examining the mediating effects of interactive communication and social bonds on the trust–commitment relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is conducted in the professional services context. Qualitative and quantitative data are gathered from respondents engaged in attorney–client and real estate–client relationships. Unstructured, in-depth interviews are first conducted for use in model development. Study hypotheses are examined and mediation tests are conducted utilizing the serial multiple mediator model proposed by Hayes (2013).

Findings

Study findings indicate that intimate relationships in the professional services context are characterized by interactive communication and social bonds, and that the variables act as full mediators of the trust–commitment relationship. Though trust has a positive and significant effect on commitment in isolation, this relationship becomes nonsignificant when simultaneously accounting for the effects of the two variables.

Practical/implications

Study findings suggest a need for programs designed to assist professional service providers in the development of intimate customer relationships. The importance of interactive communications and social bonding should be emphasized in these programs.

Originality/value

The study is one of the few empirical papers to investigate the role of intimacy in service relationships and the first to illustrate its mediating effects on the trust–commitment relationship.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Yaser Javed, Mohtashim Mansoor and Irtiza Ali Shah

Pressure, being one of the key variables investigated in scientific and engineering research, requires critical and accurate measurement techniques. With the advancements…

Abstract

Purpose

Pressure, being one of the key variables investigated in scientific and engineering research, requires critical and accurate measurement techniques. With the advancements in materials and machining technologies, there is a large leap in the measurement techniques including the development of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors. These sensors are one to two orders smaller in magnitude than traditional sensors and combine electrical and mechanical components that are fabricated using integrated circuit batch-processing technologies. MEMS are finding enormous applications in many industrial fields ranging from medical to automotive, communication to electronics, chemical to aviation and many more with a potential market of billions of dollars. MEMS pressure sensors are now widely used devices owing to their intrinsic properties of small size, light weight, low cost, ease of batch fabrication and integration with an electronic circuit. This paper aims to identify and analyze the common pressure sensing techniques and discuss their uses and advantages. As per our understanding, usage of MEMS pressure sensors in the aerospace industry is quite limited due to cost constraints and indirect measurement approaches owing to the inability to locate sensors in harsh environments. The purpose of this study is to summarize the published literature for application of MEMS pressure sensors in the said field. Five broad application areas have been investigated including: propulsion/turbomachinery applications, turbulent flow diagnosis, experimentalaerodynamics, micro-flow control and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)/micro aerial vehicle (MAV) applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The first part of the paper deals with an introduction to MEMS pressure sensors and mathematical relations for its fabrication. The second part covers pressure sensing principles followed by the application of MEMS pressure sensors in five major fields of aerospace industry.

Findings

In this paper, various pressure sensing principles in MEMS and applications of MEMS technology in the aerospace industry have been reviewed. Five application fields have been investigated including: Propulsion/Turbomachinery applications, turbulent flow diagnosis, experimental aerodynamics, micro-flow control and UAV/MAV applications. Applications of MEMS sensors in the aerospace industry are quite limited due to requirements of very high accuracy, high reliability and harsh environment survivability. However, the potential for growth of this technology is foreseen due to inherent features of MEMS sensors’ being light weight, low cost, ease of batch fabrication and capability of integration with electric circuits. All these advantages are very relevant to the aerospace industry. This work is an endeavor to present a comprehensive review of such MEMS pressure sensors, which are used in the aerospace industry and have been reported in recent literature.

Originality/value

As per the author’s understanding, usage of MEMS pressure sensors in the aerospace industry is quite limited due to cost constraints and indirect measurement approaches owing to the inability to locate sensors in harsh environments. Present work is a prime effort in summarizing the published literature for application of MEMS pressure sensors in the said field. Five broad application areas have been investigated including: propulsion/turbomachinery applications, turbulent flow diagnosis, experimental aerodynamics, micro-flow control and UAV/MAV applications.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Huayong Wu and Shenjie Zhou

– The natural frequency of a diaphragm with residual stress in contact with a liquid is investigated theoretically in this paper. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Abstract

Purpose

The natural frequency of a diaphragm with residual stress in contact with a liquid is investigated theoretically in this paper. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An analytical calculation using the nondimensional added virtual mass incremental (NAVMI) factors is performed to find the dependency of the natural frequency on the residual stress when the diaphragm vibrating in contact with a liquid.

Findings

The analysis gives the residual stress contribution to the added virtual mass.

Originality/value

The magnitude of the added virtual mass depends on the residual stress. However, the magnitude of the natural frequency is found to be insignificant to the residual stress.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Muthukumaran Packirisamy

To predict the influence of inherent microfabrication and operating environmental influences on the performance of capacitive type sensors and actuators so that one can…

Abstract

Purpose

To predict the influence of inherent microfabrication and operating environmental influences on the performance of capacitive type sensors and actuators so that one can tune the performance and carry out more realistic designs.

Design/methodology/approach

When the sensors and actuators are micromachined or microfabricated, they are subjected to special problems that are characteristic to microdimensions. The important concerns are the influence of microfabrication process on the material properties and influence of operating environment on the system behavior. Hence, this paper proposed a way of quantifying and modeling the influence of inherent limitations of microfabrication and operating environment for the better design of micromachined capacitive type sensors and actuators. The methodology applies the modeling the variation of the elastic property of the system due to above influences through elastic stiffening and weakening concepts. The approach includes the application of boundary conditioning concept through Rayleigh energy method.

Findings

The microfabrication process and electrostatic field can alter significantly both static and dynamic behavior of the device. The performance of the device could also be tuned through these influences.

Research limitations/implications

As the displacement of the sensors is expected to be small, linear approach is applied. The sensitivity, output range, operating limits and natural frequencies of the sensor can be easily controlled by varying the process and operating environmental influences.

Practical implications

Improved and more realistic design of microfabricated capacitive type sensors and actuators for many applications, such as, pressure sensors, microphones, microspeakers, etc.

Originality/value

A simple and easy way of modeling and quantifying the influence of process and operating environment was proposed for the betterment of design. The proposed design method can be applied for any micromachined or microfabricated capacitive type sensors and actuators so that varying sensitivities, output ranges and natural frequencies could be obtained. Over the last few years, newly emerging micro‐electro‐mechanical‐systems (MEMS) technology and micro‐fabrication techniques have gained popularity and importance in the miniaturization of a variety of sensors and actuators. The proposed technique is very useful in making the field of MEMS more matured as it attempts to model the problems that are unique to MEMS environment.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Kristi Zook and Steve Spencer

This paper outlines the steps taken by the Interior Design Unit and the Facilities Maintenance Unit to develop a team dynamic and a methodology for defining a company…

Abstract

This paper outlines the steps taken by the Interior Design Unit and the Facilities Maintenance Unit to develop a team dynamic and a methodology for defining a company standards programme to be utilised in building projects. The aim is to accent the need for the collaboration of the two units in developing a process ensuring aesthetically pleasing and maintenance‐friendly attributes. The reader will discover proven design/maintenance ideas developed through the partnership that can be applied to their own organisations. The step‐by‐step process utilised by Interior design and Facilities Maintenance to develop a company standard programme is outlined in detail. Vendor/product evaluation, vendor selection, product specifications and timely process review are identified.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2005

Dr. h.c. Peter Lorange

Abstract

Details

Shipping Company Strategies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045806-9

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