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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

Shashi Kant, J.C. Nautiyal and R.A. Berry

A single dimensional measure of economic welfare in terms of per capita income has neglected the contribution of the non‐timber benefits of forests; hence forests have not…

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Abstract

A single dimensional measure of economic welfare in terms of per capita income has neglected the contribution of the non‐timber benefits of forests; hence forests have not received their due weight in literature on the development process. Advocates a multi‐dimensional measure of economic welfare. Presents, at the global level, an overview of the contribution of non‐timber forest products and at the micro level a case study from India. Highlights a more complete evaluation of the contribution of forests, and focuses on the economic contribution of forest resources to household income, income distribution, and spread of income over the year.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2007

Sunil Nautiyal and Harald Kaechele

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the conservation and management of crop diversity in traditional agro‐ecosystems as a crucial component for sustainable landscape…

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1019

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the conservation and management of crop diversity in traditional agro‐ecosystems as a crucial component for sustainable landscape development in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region. The results indicate that mountain farming has the potential to produce good output from a low input system where farmers still use local resources and locally developed technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The discussion of major issues in this paper is based on our empirical study involving a survey of the area and field‐based experiments to evaluate the productivity in traditional mountain farming systems. Additionally, landscape change was monitored with the use of satellite data.

Findings

The paper finds that the rate of genetic erosion within the study area during the last three decades is documented and the factors responsible for such erosion identified. The efficiency of traditional agro‐ecosystems of Himalayan Mountains in terms of energy and monetary value is presented. Traditional crop cultivation in the region appears efficient from the viewpoint of ecology of the area and economy of the local people.

Practical implications

This paper recommends practical options to encourage cultivation of traditional crops for their conservation and management in the Himalayan agro‐ecosystems that will lead to sustainable landscape development in these mountains. Traditional agro‐ecosystems are characterized by their dependence on local resources, close links to the surrounding forests, and locally developed technologies in the Himalayas of India. Research and policy support for their conservation in traditional agro‐ecosystems in this region is required as many traditional crops and their landraces are in jeopardy due to their rapid genetic erosion in the region. The land use land cover map developed within this study enables observation of the process of the landscape change trends in the region. Local communities need proper awareness and encouragement through appropriate research, institutional and policy support to continue growing traditional crops for both their economic incentives and management of the ecosystem services.

Originality/value

The paper shows that traditional crop diversity can enhance the economic conditions for people without having negative implications on the surrounding landscape.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Nisha Nautiyal, S.B. Singh and Soni Bisht

The present paper focuses on the evaluation of reliability and its characteristics (Mean time to failure and Sensitivity) of a k-out-of-n network.

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper focuses on the evaluation of reliability and its characteristics (Mean time to failure and Sensitivity) of a k-out-of-n network.

Design/methodology/approach

The minimal cuts of the network have been evaluated for different nodes in this paper, using an algorithm. With the help of these cuts, reliability and its characteristics are obtained using Gumbel–Hougaard family of the copula.

Findings

The present paper proposes to compute the reliability and its measures of the k-out-of-n network using the minimal cuts and copula methodology. The completely failed nodes of the network have been repaired using Gumbel–Hougaard family of the copula.

Originality/value

In this paper, the reliability of a k-out-of-n network has been evaluated by first calculating k-out-of-n minimal cuts, and the failed nodes have also been repaired using Gumbel–Hougaard family of the copula, unlike as done in the past.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2021

Akhilesh Nautiyal and Sunil Sharma

A large number of roads have been constructed in the rural areas of India to connect habitations with the nearest major roads. With time, the pavements of these roads have…

Abstract

Purpose

A large number of roads have been constructed in the rural areas of India to connect habitations with the nearest major roads. With time, the pavements of these roads have deteriorated and they need some kind of maintenance, although they all do not need maintenance at the same time, as they have all not deteriorated to the same level. Hence, they have to be prioritized for maintenance.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to present a scientific methodology for prioritizing pavement maintenance, the factors affecting prioritization and the relative importance of each were identified through an expert survey. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to scientifically establish weight (importance) of each factor based on its relative importance over other factors. The proposed methodology was validated through a case study of 203 low volume rural roads in the state of Himachal Pradesh in India. Ranking of these roads in order of their priority for maintenance was presented as the final result.

Findings

The results show that pavement distresses, traffic volume, type of connectivity and the socioeconomic facilities located along a road are the four major factors to be considered in determining the priority of a road for maintenance.

Research limitations/implications

The methodology provides a comprehensive, scientific and socially responsible pavement maintenance prioritization method which will automatically select roads for maintenance without any bias.

Practical implications

Timely maintenance of roads will also save budgetary expenditure of restoration/reconstruction, leading to enhancement of road service life. The government will not only save money but also provide timely benefit to the needy population.

Social implications

Road transportation is the primary mode of inland transportation in rural areas. Timely maintenance of the pavements will be of great help to the socioeconomic development of rural areas.

Originality/value

The proposed methodology lays special emphasis on rural roads which are small in length, but large in number. Instead of random, a scientific method for selection of roads for maintenance will be of great help to the public works department for better management of rural road network.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Sachin Negi, Ujjwal Sagar, Vijay Kumar Nautiyal and Neeraj Sharma

This paper aims to design and analyze a controlled magnetorheological damper-based ankle-foot prosthesis prototype.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to design and analyze a controlled magnetorheological damper-based ankle-foot prosthesis prototype.

Design/methodology/approach

The ankle-foot prostheses prototype is proposed using the lightweight three dimensional (3 D)-printed parts, MR damper and digital servomotor. Initially, the computer-aided design (CAD) model of the prosthetic foot, leaf spring, retention spring and the various connecting parts required to connect the pylon and damper actuator assemblies are designed using CAD software. Later, the fused deposition modeling 3 D printer-based technique prints a prosthetic foot and other connecting parts using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene filament. The prototype consists of two control parts: the first part controls the MR actuator that absorbs the impacts during walking. The second part is the control of the electric actuator intended to generate the dorsiflexion and plantar flexion movements. Finally, the prototype is tested on a transtibial amputee under the supervision of a prosthetist.

Findings

The ANalysis SYStems software-based analysis has shown that the prosthetic foot has a factor of safety values between 4.7 and 8.7 for heel strike, mid-swing and toe-off; hence, it is safe from mechanical failure. The designed MR damper-based ankle-foot prosthesis prototype is tested on an amputee for a level-ground walk; he felt comfortable compared to his passive prosthesis.

Originality/value

The design of an MR damper-based prosthesis prototype offers a better dynamic range for locomotion than passive prostheses. It reduces the injuries and provides relief to the transtibial amputees.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2008

Sunil Nautiyal and Harald Kaechele

The purpose of the paper is to critically evaluate the concept of ecosystem conservation in the areas where human and ecosystem interactions are really complex as – in one…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to critically evaluate the concept of ecosystem conservation in the areas where human and ecosystem interactions are really complex as – in one of the biodiversity hotspots – the Himalayas in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The research results reported in this paper are the outcome of empirical studies performed for last 12 years in the Himalayas, combined with a review of available literature, discussions with stakeholders and experimental‐design in the field conditions.

Findings

The paper identifies that conservation and management of the ecosystems/landscapes and the development of the local economy are interwoven. It evaluates the landscape management and development in economic and ecological perspectives and concurrently develops the theoretical model to understand the change in human behavior under shifting political, socio‐economic and environmental conditions.

Practical implications

Through the development of a theoretical agent model this study would help the design and development of sound methodological approaches in providing feasible solutions for complex human‐ecosystems interactions for sustainable landscape development in the fragile Himalayan environment.

Originality/value

This paper is original and shows that the development of a model framework and of appropriate models for natural resource management in the Himalayan region are still very limited and the paper is an initiative in this endeavor.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2019

Ibtissam El Housni, Samira Idrissi, Najlae El Mekkaoui, Sara Mtougui, Rajaa Khalladi, Hicham Labrim, Soumia Ziti and Lahoucine Bahmad

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the magnetic properties and the ground state phase diagrams of the double perovskite La2NiMnO6 using the Monte Carlo simulations (MCS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the magnetic properties and the ground state phase diagrams of the double perovskite La2NiMnO6 using the Monte Carlo simulations (MCS).

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the authors propose a Hamiltonian modeling this compound, described by an Ising model, with different exchange coupling interactions J11, J12 and J22 between the only magnetic atoms Ni and Mn.

Findings

Starting with the ground state phase diagrams, the authors present and discuss the stable configurations in different physical parameter planes. On the other hand, the authors present the investigation of the magnetic properties and the magnetization behaviors of the magnetic susceptibilities, as a function of temperature, crystal field, the exchange coupling interactions and the Zeeman energy. To complete this study, the authors illustrate the dependency of the total magnetizations for the hysteresis loops of the double perovskite La2NiMnO6 compound. This study is done for fixed values of temperature, the exchange coupling interactions and crystal field.

Originality/value

The authors modeled the different physical parameters of the double perovskite La2NiMnO with a Hamiltonian describing the system. At T=0K, the authors discussed the ground state phase diagrams of different physical parameters planes. For non-null temperature values, the authors studied the magnetic behavior of the double perovskite La2NiMnO using MCS under the metropolis algorithm. The authors expect that the results of these simulations can provide some important keys for the experimental research and technology applications of the double perovskite La2NiMnO6 in the future.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Sunil Nautiyal, Mrinalini Goswami, S. Manasi, Prasanta Bez, K. Bhaskar and Y.D. Imran Khan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of biogas in India for energy conservation and its potential in emission reduction through proper manure management…

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536

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of biogas in India for energy conservation and its potential in emission reduction through proper manure management and utilizing the tappable droppings while replacing the conventional and non-conventional fuel.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have looked at the production, use and tappability of animal excreta for possible biogas generation and reduction in fuelwood consumption on one hand and emission reduction across the Indian states on the other. The average percentage of Biogas potential is created in the GIS database for analyzing the data set in the spatial domain using ArcGIS 9.2 software.

Findings

The paper examines that unused manure contributes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) and has huge potential of reducing the emission through proper utilization across the Indian states. Keeping current climate change dilemma in view this could be one of the feasible options to cope with the climate change and mitigating the threats.

Research limitations/implications

A comprehensive data regarding methane emission from various sources is not readily available so far. With the help of this research work the authentic data has been collected from different government departments’ data banks and past research work. However, the authors have limited to few conversion aspects in quantifying the emission factor due to complexity of the various data sets.

Practical implications

Looking at the availability of usable animal excreta in different climatic regions, the attempt has been made in demarcating economically viable and technically feasible areas for biogas generation in India. An environmental and economic cost benefit analysis for adopting this renewable energy source has also been incorporated within this research.

Originality/value

The paper examined the GHG contribution of unused manure and the possibility of reducing it through proper utilization. The adverse environmental consequences of the use of conventional and non-conventional cooking fuels have also been analyzed in terms of GHG emissions. The same was assessed for the whole lifecycle of liquefied petroleum gas, which is commonly assumed as a clean fuel.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2021

Deepankar Sinha and Shuvo Roy Chowdhury

Cross border trade, involving different business environments between the sellers’ and buyers’ countries, may result in conflicts because of asymmetry in the information…

Abstract

Purpose

Cross border trade, involving different business environments between the sellers’ and buyers’ countries, may result in conflicts because of asymmetry in the information structure across the borders. The International Chambers of Commerce (ICC) has laid down ground rules on terms of shipment and payment, enabling harmonization and standardization of business process, and fixing of responsibilities for international trade. The international commercial (INCO) terms by ICC define the duties, obligations and cost borne by the exporter and the importer. An exporter’s uncertainty looms once the goods cross his/her border. Therefore, there is a need for a smart contract that is secured, transparent, legitimate and trustworthy. The authors propose a blockchain technology-based smart global contract (BTGC) framework for international trade.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors develop the framework based on value chain analysis (VCA) of international trade and an ontology-driven-blockchain-design approach. The paper analyzes the sequence of activities in the value chain of global trade, the terms of the contract, the data structure templates, the validation rules and the points-of-failure, and proposes the smart contract blockchain structure.

Findings

This paper proposes the BTGC framework considering the INCO terms 2020; it provides the validation rules and the probability of failures; and identifies the elements that cause the halting of contracts and conditions of creation of side blockchains. The framework also includes the governance of the BTGC system.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework not only has implications at the firm level as it automates and secures a global sale contract but also is expected to harmonize the global-trade process as well. The developers may use the attributes, data structure templates and the rules identified in this paper for developing the GC software. Future research may consider using case analysis, class diagrams and the related steps for developing the blockchain software.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a complete value chain of global contract (GC) concerning exports, an ontology of GC and a blockchain-based smart-contract framework based on global standards. Besides, it specifies the elements of fraud (such as the non-integration of side chains) and uncertainty, i.e. the probability of failures. Such a framework will harmonize the global-trade process and build an international standards for smart GC based on blockchain technology (ISSGCBT), which is not yet done.

Details

Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Rajneesh Kumar, Krishan Kumar and Ravindra Chandra Nautiyal

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the two-dimensional problem in couple stress thermoelastic medium for a half space is established and state space approach has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the two-dimensional problem in couple stress thermoelastic medium for a half space is established and state space approach has been applied to solve the problem.

Design/methodology/approach

Normal mode analysis is used to obtain the exact expressions for normal stress, tangential stress and couple stress. Numerical calculation is prepared for these quantities and depicted graphically for a special model.

Findings

The expressions for normal stress, tangential stress and couple stress are obtained numerically and depicted graphically to see the couple stress effect.

Originality/value

It is found that couple stress effect decrease the value of normal stress components for circular frequency equal to 0.5 for small values of the wave number and then increases whereas the values of normal stress components decrease first and then increase monotonically for circular frequency equal to 0.1 when the force is applied in normal direction and the values of tangential stress components and couple stress components decrease for all values of wave number. But the values for normal stress components, tangential stress components and couple stress components increase when the force is applied in tangential direction.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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