In recent years, practitioners have identified a number of problems with traditional performance management (PM) systems, arguing that PM is broken and needs to be fixed…
In recent years, practitioners have identified a number of problems with traditional performance management (PM) systems, arguing that PM is broken and needs to be fixed. In this chapter, we review criticisms of traditional PM practices that have been mentioned by journalists and practitioners and we consider the solutions that they have presented for addressing these concerns. We then consider these problems and solutions within the context of extant scholarly research and identify (a) what organizations should do going forward to improve PM practices (i.e., focus on feedback processes, ensure accountability throughout the PM system, and align the PM system with organizational strategy) and (b) what scholars should focus research attention on (i.e., technology, strategic alignment, and peer-to-peer accountability) in order to reduce the science-practice gap in this domain.
An algorithm is described for the incremental solution of elastic—plastic finite element analysis using a piecewise holonomic constitutive law based on a von Mises yield…
An algorithm is described for the incremental solution of elastic—plastic finite element analysis using a piecewise holonomic constitutive law based on a von Mises yield condition. The holonomic assumption effectively converts each incremental problem into a non‐linear elastic—plastic problem. The algorithm is iterative, substituting the non‐linear strain potential by a quadratic potential at each iteration, and convergence is proved. The algorithm has been implemented into a finite element program as a series of secant modulus approximations, and results for a variety of problems are given. The rate of convergence is fairly slow, but the algorithm can be very easily programmed as an extension of an elastic program, and may have value as an independent method of determining incremental elastic—plastic solutions.
This paper considers the classical problem of the deformation of an elastic‐plastic body subjected to a prescribed history of loading. Attention is focused on the basis…
This paper considers the classical problem of the deformation of an elastic‐plastic body subjected to a prescribed history of loading. Attention is focused on the basis for the time discretization of the problem for numerical solution. It is suggested that this discretization can be achieved consistently by conceiving of the problem as a sequence of holonomic, or non‐linear elastic, problems. Complementary work bounds can be given, in special circumstances, for increasing numbers of time steps. The holonomic problem for a single time step is a non‐linear mathematical programming problem: it is shown that the conventional Newton‐Raphson algorithm used in elastic‐plastic finite element analysis can be interpreted as an iterative procedure for finding the least value of the holonomic potential work functional.
Aims to analyse the labour market outcome when there are two unions in the industry, representing heterogeneous workers – imperfect substitutes in production.
Competition between union policies are viewed in terms of both employment and wage strategies. Results for substitutes and complements are inspected. Attention is given to the strategic behaviour of the unions, towards one another and/or the employer side. Cooperation is modelled using the Nash‐maximand approach.
Gathers some notes and enlargements to the standard collective bargaining problem in which unions maximise utility. Extends the framework to model union competition behaviour for jobs and/or employment that reproduces the standard market product analysis of imperfect competition. Focuses on heterogeneous labour.
The analysis concentrates on the case of union duopoly, but can easily be enlarged to the n‐union setting – which is left for further investigation.
A simple analytical example with Stone‐Geary union utility functions and a linear labour demand system is forwarded.
Wonders whether companies actually have employees best interests at heart across physical, mental and spiritual spheres. Posits that most organizations ignore their…
Wonders whether companies actually have employees best interests at heart across physical, mental and spiritual spheres. Posits that most organizations ignore their workforce – not even, in many cases, describing workers as assets! Describes many studies to back up this claim in theis work based on the 2002 Employment Research Unit Annual Conference, in Cardiff, Wales.
The finite element quasi‐static analysis of elastoplastic systemsis studied by making use of a generalized variable approach for the spatialdiscretization and a…
The finite element quasi‐static analysis of elastoplastic systems is studied by making use of a generalized variable approach for the spatial discretization and a generalized mid‐point rule for the time integration. Both the classical form of the constitutive law and the convex analysis formulation are presented. The relation between the mid‐point time integration and the extremal path theory is discussed. Extremal properties for the finite‐step solution are formulated.
We examine whether self-stigmatization may affect the everyday social interactions of individuals with a diagnosed, affective mental health disorder. Past research demonstrates self-stigmatization lowers self-esteem, efficacy, and personal agency, leading to the likely adoption of role-identities that are at the periphery of major social institutions. We advance research on self-stigma by examining the likely interactional and emotional consequences of enacting either a highly stigmatized self-identity or a weakly stigmatized self-identity.
Using affect control theory (ACT), we form predictions related to the interactional and emotional consequences of self-stigmatization. We use the Indianapolis Mental Health Study and Interact, a computerized instantiation of ACT, to generate empirically based simulation results for patients with an affective disorder (e.g., major depression and bipolar disorder), comparing simulations where the focal actor is a person with a mental illness who exhibits either high or low levels of self-stigma.
Self-stigma is predicted to negatively influence patients’ behavioral expression, leading the highly self-stigmatized to enact behaviors that are lower in goodness, power, and liveliness than the weakly self-stigmatized. Their corresponding emotional expressions during these types of interactions are similarly negatively impacted. Even though these likely interactions are the most confirmatory for people with high levels of self-stigma, they lead to interactions that are behaviorally and emotionally more negative than those who have been better able to resist internalizing stigmatizing beliefs.
This piece has implications for the literature on the interactional and life course challenges faced by psychiatric patients and contributes to the self-stigma literature more broadly. This work will hopefully inform future research involving the collection of non-simulation-based data on the everyday interactional experiences of people with mental health problems.
There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming…
There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming at the documentation of works related to container terminals.
An effort to review, collect and present the majority of the works present in the last 30 years, between 1980 and 2010, has been made in order to picture the problems dealt and methods used by the authors in the specific research field. To facilitate the reader, studies have been grouped under five categories of addressed problems (productivity and competitiveness, yard and equipment utilization, equipment scheduling, berth planning, loading/unloading) and four modelling methodologies (mathematics and operations research, management and economics, simulation, stochastic modelling).
The analysis shows that most works focus on productivity and competitiveness issues followed by yard and equipment utilisation and equipment scheduling. In reference to the methodologies used managerial and economic approaches lead, followed by mathematics and operations research.
In reference to future research, two fields have been identified where there is scope of significant contribution by the academic community: container terminal security and container terminal supply chain integration.
The present chapter provides the framework for researchers in the field of port container terminals to picture the so far works in this research area and enables the identification of gaps at both research question and methodology level for further research.