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Geoff Hayward, Eugenia Katartzi, Hubert Ertl and Michael Hoelscher
Sofia Lachhab, Tina Šegota, Alastair M. Morrison and J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak
Crisis management has developed as an established field of scholarly research in tourism over the last three decades. More recently, the concept of resilience has emerged…
Crisis management has developed as an established field of scholarly research in tourism over the last three decades. More recently, the concept of resilience has emerged within this body of literature as a longer-term planning process. However, important knowledge gaps remain, especially with regards to the strategic responses of small tourism businesses in destinations prone to repeated crises.
This chapter reviews the literature related to crisis management and resilience in tourism.
Key knowledge gaps are outlined and discussed in the context of tourism research related to crisis management and resilience, with a specific emphasis on research related to small tourism businesses.
Although crisis management and resilience are fields of research that continue to generate a considerable amount of scholarly enquiry in tourism, particularly with studies related to the impacts of terrorism on tourism destinations and, more recently, the short- and longer-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism, there is very little research related to the role of small tourism businesses in this context, in spite of their key role in the tourism system of destinations around the world.
Jennifer Moore Bernstein and Robert O. Vos
Larry E. Pate and Kendrith M. Rowland
In a recent issue of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Blake strongly criticised an article on organisational change by Blumberg and Wiener for the authors'…
In a recent issue of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Blake strongly criticised an article on organisational change by Blumberg and Wiener for the authors' failure thoroughly to review the literature and for missing important material relevant to their study. In response, Blumberg simply stated that they were not aware of the material, because it had appeared in a relatively obscure journal. Indeed, a later writer (Zurcher) criticised one of Blake's papers on the same grounds, and then suggested that an event such as this might easily happen to any of us. Despite their apparent conflict, each of these individuals did agree, of course, that a thorough review of the literature on any given topic is necessary to good research and reporting. Our purpose here is not to pour salt on wounds, but rather to illustrate our raison d'être for presenting the material below.
Michael Calnan and Tom Douglass
A. JOHN RENTOUL and BARRY J. FRASER
The School‐Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ) is a new instrument measuring teachers' perceptions of the following eight psychosocial dimensions of the environment of…
The School‐Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ) is a new instrument measuring teachers' perceptions of the following eight psychosocial dimensions of the environment of primary or secondary schools: Affiliation, Student Supportiveness, Professional Interest, Achievement Orientation, Formalisation, Centralisation, Innovativeness and Resource Adequacy. Noteworthy features of the SLEQ are its consistence with the literature, coverage of Moos's three general categories for conceptualising all human environments, salience to practising teachers, specific relevance to schools, minimal overlap with classroom environment instruments, and economy. Administration of the SLEQ to two samples of 83 and 34 teachers, respectively, revealed that each seven‐item scale possessed satisfactory internal consistency and discriminant validity. Preliminary use of the SLEQ provided evidence of its usefulness in research into the effects of school‐level environment on classroom‐level environment and on teachers' pedagogical attitudes.
Gerald K. LeTendre and Alexander W. Wiseman
Research has already uncovered a great deal of evidence about the individual and organizational qualities that enhance effective teaching and the kinds of qualifications…
Research has already uncovered a great deal of evidence about the individual and organizational qualities that enhance effective teaching and the kinds of qualifications (attributes) that are associated with effective teaching and learning. From a research perspective, increased precision and specificity in the definition and refinement of specific concepts (e.g., pedagogical content knowledge) will increase academic knowledge about the relationship between teacher characteristics, working conditions, and the quality of instruction that takes place. This knowledge may have little effect on policy formation. From a policy perspective, a holistic or organic conception of teacher quality will be critical for effective policy formation and implementation. At some point, academic knowledge about different aspects of effective or “quality” teaching need to be connected to a general concept of a quality teacher in order to be effectively inserted into policy debates and the general media. Systematic use of academic knowledge is often hindered by either the narrow focus of the research, or by its limited application to actual teacher practice. In spite of these limitations in academic research, there are areas where academics, policymakers, and practitioners have achieved consensus or are converging on shared constructs of promise. In other areas, both academic and political debates seem locked into conflict over constructs related to teacher quality. Identifying these three broad categories of consensus, convergence, and conflict provides a broad framework to assess the kinds of research and the kinds of reform that need to be carried out in order to promote and sustain teachers’ development and implementation of their professional skills in the classroom.
It is as a result of the artificial separation into academic, intellectual and employer, on the one hand, and practical, manual worker on the other, and the exploitation…
It is as a result of the artificial separation into academic, intellectual and employer, on the one hand, and practical, manual worker on the other, and the exploitation of the lower classes by the upper, that education today falls into two main areas — that for the upper and upper‐middle classes who will be the property owners, the employers, and the rulers of our society, and that for the lower classes, with an increasing area of overlap as education becomes increasingly necessary for a technical society. The separation in social function and in education creates large problems of communication and of social strife, as Basil Bernstein so clearly shows. The children of the higher social classes (some 30 per cent) have a rich infant experience of play and language that enables them to profit from education, while the restricted experience and languages of the lower classes (some 30–40 per cent) denies them this possibility and ensures that they will continue to act as beasts of burden without serious complaint. They form the bulk of our ‘Newsom’ children, passive, apathetic, untouched by many of teacher's values, often completely lost in an academic fog, and conditioned only to accept authority without question.
L. Yang, J.B. Bernstein and K. Chung
This paper will review the challenges brought by lead‐free soldering and some preliminary experimental evaluation results will be discussed. The initial results show that…
This paper will review the challenges brought by lead‐free soldering and some preliminary experimental evaluation results will be discussed. The initial results show that the lead‐free soldering process with 260°C reflow peak temperature does not directly cause failures for bismaleimide‐triazine (BT)‐based fine pitch ball grid array (FPBGA) packages. However, the strict lead‐free soldering condition could degrade the integrity of weak interface joints and potentially damage the package in subsequent unbiased highly accelerated stress test (unbiased HAST) evaluation. The impacts of lead‐free soldering with high reflow temperature on concurrent available electronics components could be more severe than previously believed. In the future, new materials and design concepts should be applied to enhance the package reliability under strict lead‐free soldering conditions.
Liyu Yang, Rui Niu, Jinsong Xie, Bin Qian, Baishi Song, Qingan Rong and Joseph Bernstein
In today's electronic package development cycle, activities are managed by multiple participants in the supply chain, which might have different quality and reliability…
In today's electronic package development cycle, activities are managed by multiple participants in the supply chain, which might have different quality and reliability impacts to the end product. As a result, the reliability risk is much higher for companies who do not have insight into and/or control over the products received. The purpose of this paper is to show how design‐for‐reliability (DFR) approaches will come into play to manage the risk.
In this paper, DFR approaches for package development will be discussed from the perspective of the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). DFR practices through the package development cycle will be described based on key development modules. A case study for flip chip ball gris array package development using an advanced Cu/Low‐k silicon technology will be presented. Key measures to help control the quality and improve the reliability will be presented.
The proposed methodology significantly improves component and package reliability through the engagement in design, manufacturing, assessment and system evaluation.
The paper discusses the research results and the proposed DFR methodology will be helpful for fabless design houses, electronics manufacturing service (EMS) partners in the supply chain, and OEMs to manage the reliability of the products.