Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…
Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applications of FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore aims to give the reader an encyclopaedic view on the subject. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 2,025 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1992‐1995.
The last 60 years have seen Australia and the United Kingdom diverge, both socially and economically. This paper considers how the widening social gap between the two…
The last 60 years have seen Australia and the United Kingdom diverge, both socially and economically. This paper considers how the widening social gap between the two countries is reflected by their respective redistributive systems. The analysis is based upon two microsimulation procedures – one static and the other dynamic – both of which are used to consider the probable distributional effects that would arise if elements of the Australian and UK tax and benefits systems were exchanged. The static microsimulation analysis presented suggests that comparisons based purely upon cross-sectional survey data are affected by population heterogeneity, which tend to overstate the redistributive effect of the Australian transfer system relative to the UK. Nevertheless, the dynamic microsimulations suggest that, on balance, the Australian transfer system is more redistributive than the UK system, and reflects a greater concern for redistribution between households. The UK system, in contrast, reflects a greater concern for redistribution through the life course.
I feel therefore that the estimated calcium intakes of children and adults may probably be too high. It has been stated that if we take all our rations of milk and cheese, then our calcium intake now is no worse than it was before the war. That is probably true, if we eat all our rations. The point I would like to make however, is this. Assuming our calcium intakes are the same now as before the war, they are still below optimum. The correction of this calcium deficiency cannot at present be done by increasing the rations of the calcium foods, and so some other means had to be found. The Government decided, in the interests of national health, to fortify bread with calcium. With this extra calcium they considered that the majority of people, rich and poor alike, would be able to ingest at least a bare minimum of calcium. By adding it to bread, a cheap staple food, it brought this important mineral within reach of the poorer classes who were and are in need of it most. This step has aroused a certain amount of controversy, so let us examine the facts.
This study analyses direct effects of risk-related factors on perceived quality for private labels.
A total of 159 usable data was collected through survey, using mall intercept method in one regional retail chain in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The results confirm that the perceived risk has a significant and negative impact on consumers’ perceptions of the quality of private labels, and that the financial risk, performance risk, and physical risk are significant determinants of overall perceived risk, thus indirectly influencing the perception of the quality of these brands.
This chapter shows that the perceived quality of private labels is significantly determined by the perceived risk to which consumers are exposed. The findings of this research can help retailers in terms of adequately defining marketing policies aimed at reducing the perceived risk that consumers are exposed to when purchasing their own brands.
The role of market information is critical to the success or failure of new product introduction. The challenge of bringing market information to design engineers throughout the design process is addressed, using an information modelling approach. This allows valuable quality function deployment (QFD) information to be captured alongside other product design information, within an object‐oriented database. An environment that facilitates the collection, modification and evaluation of information for QFD analysis is provided. This integrated software environment allows valuable market information to be shared between multi‐discipline project team members. Use of the decision support system is demonstrated through a case study.
Enterprise activities are intricate, as companies often produce multiple product families which require a complex mixture of production modes. Modelling techniques are commonly applied to expose the behaviour of an enterprise and to investigate the feasibility of achieving business objectives. However, enterprise modelling can be a slow process and models become invalid if business objectives are changed, because their information content may be overtaken by fast changing market conditions. The modelling process is accelerated if new models can use part or all of the information from previous models. This paper addresses these issues by introducing a reusable enterprise model, called a factory data model (FDM). It has been implemented using an object‐oriented approach, and contains five key class hierarchies. The model can be specialised to meet the requirements of individual enterprises; hence, less time and effort are involved in creating new models to satisfy changes in enterprise requirements.