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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

H.K. Straschil, I. Kadija, J. Maisano and J.A. Abys

Electroplating of palladium‐nickel alloy is becoming widely used, mainly for interconnection applications in the electronics industry and for decorative purposes. Enhanced…

Abstract

Electroplating of palladium‐nickel alloy is becoming widely used, mainly for interconnection applications in the electronics industry and for decorative purposes. Enhanced hardness and brightness combined with superior wear properties compared with hard gold deposits make this alloy desirable in many applications. Like pure palladium, palladium‐nickel is frequently covered with a thin layer of hard gold to improve contact reliability; this results in a much less expensive and longer‐lasting contact material than hard gold on its own. In response to the growing demand, the authors have developed a palladium‐nickel alloy electroplating process that can plate alloys of varying composition (10–50 w % Ni) at current densities ranging from <5 mA/cm to >500 mA/cm. This process produces specular, hard and ductile deposits up to a thickness of ‐25 ?m. The new palladium‐nickel alloy electroplating process is described with regard to its chemistry, operating conditions, bath maintenance and regeneration, diagnostic measures, and properties of the electrodeposits.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Chonglun Fan, Joseph A. Abys and Alan Blair

Palladium surface finishes are utilized on leadframes, printed wiring boards and automobile sensors. Their superior functional performance and the considerable…

Abstract

Palladium surface finishes are utilized on leadframes, printed wiring boards and automobile sensors. Their superior functional performance and the considerable environmental impact of plating lead‐free finishes for packaging processes have been increasingly recognized by the electronic industry. Wire bondable and solderable palladium finishes meet military and industrial standards at no extra cost in the overall assembly processes when compared to traditional packaging techniques. In addition to the development of palladium plating chemistries and technologies, the functional properties of the surface finishes including their wire bonding performance have also been investigated at Bell Laboratories. In this study, gold and aluminum wire bonding to palladium finishes was tested and the wire bond pull force and break position were examined in order to optimize the bonding processes. The results of the study are reported in this paper.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Vitor da Mata Quintella, Antônio Francisco de Almeida da Silva Jr, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti Almeida and Marcelo Embiruçu

The purpose of this paper is to identify, measure and optimise financial risk and its effect on returns from innovation projects on an accrual basis and on a cash basis in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify, measure and optimise financial risk and its effect on returns from innovation projects on an accrual basis and on a cash basis in a commodity industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A hypothetical case study, based on a real case, of a petrochemical commodity industry in Brazil was analysed with commodities pricing rules based on actual contracts. Earnings at risk (EaR) and cash flow at risk (CFaR) measures were applied, as well as a metric proposed in this paper called cash balance at risk (CBaR).

Findings

The paper demonstrates that financial risk measurement and optimisation are important issues in the decision-making process in the petrochemical industry. EaR, CFaR and CBaR measures are helpful when used alongside standard procedures of project evaluation. The findings also show that innovative technologies, in certain conditions, may act as “natural hedging”. It was found that the time delay between revenues and expenses leads to financial risk exposure to changes in prices and foreign exchange rates. Projects can use financing and hedging to boost their results.

Originality/value

An innovative project was compared with an expansion project in a petrochemical industry. A model for petrochemical commodities contract pricing was added in an analysis that included financing and hedging. The findings in this paper suggest that it is important to consider financial risk measures in project evaluation.

Objetivo

O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar, medir e otimizar o risco financeiro e seus efeitos sobre os resultados de projetos com inovação, tanto na perspectiva do regime contábil quanto do regime de caixa, em uma indústria de commodities.

Abordagem

Um estudo de caso hipotético, baseado em um caso real de uma indústria petroquímica brasileira, foi analisado com regras de precificação de commodities baseados em contratos reais. As métricas Earnings at Risk (EaR) e Cash Flow at Risk (CFaR) foram utilizadas, assim como uma métrica proposta neste trabalho, denominada Cash Balance at Risk (CBaR).

Resultados

Este artigo demonstrou que a mensuração e otimização do risco financeiro são questões importantes no processo de tomada de decisão em uma indústria petroquímica. As medidas EaR, CFaR e CBaR se apresentaram como contribuições ao processo padrão de avaliação de projetos. Os resultados também demonstraram que inovações tecnológicas, em certas condições, podem funcionar como um “hedge natural”. Foi verificado que descasamentos temporais entre recebimentos e despesas geram uma exposição financeira a oscilações em preços e em valores de moedas estrangeiras. Financiamento e hedge podem ser utilizados em conjunto para aprimorar resultados de projetos.

Originalidade/valor

Um projeto com inovação foi comparado com um projeto de expansão em uma indústria petroquímica. Foi realizada uma analise de risco que agrega ao financiamento e ao hedge o uso de contratos de precificação de commodities. Os resultados desse projeto demonstram que é importante considerar medidas de risco financeiro nas avaliações de projetos.

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2022

Çağatay Özada, Merve Ünal, Eslem Kuzu Şahin, Hakkı Özer, Ali Riza Motorcu and Murat Yazıcı

This study produced epoxy-filled urea-formaldehyde (UF) microcapsules (MCs) and T-403 amine MCs using the in situ technique. The Taguchi method was used to determine the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study produced epoxy-filled urea-formaldehyde (UF) microcapsules (MCs) and T-403 amine MCs using the in situ technique. The Taguchi method was used to determine the effects of the control factors (temperature, stirring speed, core-shell ratio and surfactant concentration) affecting MCs’ core diameter and core content and optimizing their optimum levels with a single criterion. Optimum control factor levels, which simultaneously provide maximum core diameter and core content of MCs, were determined by the PROMETHEE-GAIA multi-criteria optimization method. In addition, the optimized MC yield was analyzed by thermal camera images and compression test.

Design/methodology/approach

Microcracks in materials used for aerospace vehicles and automotive parts cause serious problems, so research on self-healing in materials science becomes critical. The damages caused by micro-cracks need to heal themselves quickly. The study has three aims: (1) production of self-healing MCs, mechanical and chemical characterization of produced MCs, (2) single-criteria and multi-criteria optimization of parameters providing maximum MC core diameter and core content, (3) investigation of self-healing property of produced MCs and evaluation. Firstly, MCs were produced to achieve these goals.

Findings

The optimized micro cures are buried in the epoxy matrix at different concentrations. Thermal camera images after damage indicate the presence of healing. An epoxy-amine MC consisting of a 10% by weight filled aluminum sandwich panel was prepared and subjected to a quasi-static compression test. It was determined that there is a strong bond between the UF shell and the epoxy resin.

Originality/value

The optimization of production factors has been realized to produce the most efficient MCs that heal using less expensive and more accessible methods.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2020

Zack Lischer-Katz

This paper aims to explore the opportunities and challenges that immersive virtual reality (VR) technologies pose for archival theory and practice.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the opportunities and challenges that immersive virtual reality (VR) technologies pose for archival theory and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper reviews research on VR adoption in information institutions and the preservation challenges of VR to identify ways in which VR has the potential to disrupt existing archival theory and practice.

Findings

Existing archival approaches are found to be disrupted by the multi-layered structural characteristics of VR, the part–whole relationships between the technological elements of VR environments and the three-dimensional content they contain and the immersive, experiential nature of VR experiences. This paper argues that drawing on perspectives from phenomenology and digital materiality is helpful for addressing the preservation challenges of VR.

Research limitations/implications

The findings extend conceptualizations of preservation by identifying gaps in existing preservation approaches to VR and stressing the importance of “experience” as a central element of archival practice and by emphasizing the embodied dimensions of interpreting archival records and the multiple scales of materiality that archival researchers and practitioners should consider to preserve VR.

Practical implications

These findings provide guidance for digital curators and preservationists by outlining the current thinking on VR preservation and the impact of VR on digital preservation strategies.

Originality/value

This paper gives new insight into VR as an emerging area of concern to digital curation and preservation and expands archival thinking with new conceptualizations that disrupt existing paradigms.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to define a dashboard of indicators to assess the quality performance of higher education institutions (HEI). The instrument is termed SMART-QUAL.

Design/methodology/approach

Two sources were used in order to explore potential indicators. In the first step, information disclosed in official websites or institutional documentation of 36 selected HEIs was analyzed. This first step also included in depth structured high managers’ interviews. A total of 223 indicators emerged. In a second step, recent specialized literature was revised searching for indicators, capturing additional 302 indicators.

Findings

Each one of the 525 total indicators was classified according to some attributes and distributed into 94 intermediate groups. These groups feed a debugging, prioritization and selection process, which ended up in the SMART-QUAL instrument: a set of 56 key performance indicators, which are grouped in 15 standards, and, in turn, classified into the 3 HEI missions. A basic model and an extended model are also proposed.

Originality/value

The paper provides a useful measure of quality performance of HEIs, showing a holistic view to monitor HEI quality from three fundamental missions. This instrument might assist HEI managers for both assessing and benchmarking purposes. The paper ends with recommendations for university managers and public administration authorities.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2019

Nicolas Haber and Mario Fargnoli

Product-service systems (PSSs)’s popularity has expanded significantly throughout recent years. The purpose of this paper is to integrate products and services to achieve…

Abstract

Purpose

Product-service systems (PSSs)’s popularity has expanded significantly throughout recent years. The purpose of this paper is to integrate products and services to achieve functional results that augment the offering’s value. Nevertheless, the intangibility of services hinders the diffusion of PSSs: services are characterized by imprecisions and ambiguities that render the assessment and prioritization of customer requirements problematic. An inadequate evaluation of the latter leads to an inconsistent PSS design that results in the customer dissatisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

To address these concerns, the paper proposes an approach integrating the quality function deployment for product-service systems (QFDforPSS) method with Thurstone’s Law of Comparative Judgments. This approach was tested at a manufacturer in the medical sector seeking to improve his market stance through a PSS model.

Findings

Although the case study is based on a limited sample, the results achieved highlight the importance of the flow of information between the PSS provider and the customers (i.e. the PSS receivers) in the healthcare sector. The proposed approach can facilitate the company in collecting information even in the case of incomplete answers to surveys and questionnaires providing a practical method to handle the uncertainty due to incomplete data.

Originality/value

The study represents one of the first applications of the PSS approach in the healthcare sector, introducing a novel integration of easy-to-use management tools to augment the understanding of customer needs and expectations.

Abstract

Details

The Aging Workforce Handbook
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-448-8

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 January 2022

Elisa Verna and Domenico Augusto Maisano

Nowadays, companies are increasingly adopting additive manufacturing (AM) technologies due to their flexibility and product customization, combined with non-dramatic…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, companies are increasingly adopting additive manufacturing (AM) technologies due to their flexibility and product customization, combined with non-dramatic increases in per unit cost. Moreover, many companies deploy a plurality of distributed AM centers to enhance flexibility and customer proximity. Although AM centers are characterized by similar equipment and working methods, their production mix and volumes may be variable. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel methodology to (1) monitor the quality of the production of individual AM centers and (2) perform a benchmarking of different AM centers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes the quality of the production output of AM centers in terms of compliance with specifications. Quality is assessed through a multivariate statistical analysis of measurement data concerning several geometric quality characteristics. A novel operational methodology is suggested to estimate the fraction nonconforming of each AM center at three different levels: (1) overall production, (2) individual product typologies in the production mix and (3) individual quality characteristics.

Findings

The proposed methodology allows performing a benchmark analysis on the quality performance of distributed AM centers during regular production, without requiring any ad hoc experimental test.

Originality/value

This research assesses the capability of distributed AM centers to meet crucial quality requirements. The results can guide production managers toward improving the quality of the production of AM centers, in order to meet customer expectations and enhance business performance.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

G. Bombara, M. Cavallini and S. Maisano

Resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. Since cathodic protection is quite necessary and actually extensively applied for the electrochemical control of corrosion of…

Abstract

Resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. Since cathodic protection is quite necessary and actually extensively applied for the electrochemical control of corrosion of immersed steel structures, adequate consideration must be given to the several deleterious effects of hydrogen (commonly included in the term ‘hydrogen embrittlement’) from overprotection.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

1 – 10 of 69