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The paper introduces a new model, the evolutionary-existential model of organizational decision-making. The purpose of the model is to provide an empirical framework for…
The paper introduces a new model, the evolutionary-existential model of organizational decision-making. The purpose of the model is to provide an empirical framework for understanding the context for decision-making under conditions of existential threat to organizations, such as the global COVID-19 pandemic during the year 2020.
The model is built on an extensive interdisciplinary literature review, drawing from research in social psychology, management, behavioral economics, evolutionary psychology and consumer behavior. In general, the authors follow Bargal's (2006) call for action research in the spirit of Lewin (1951).
According to the model, organizational decision-making during the pandemic threat is influenced by (1) existential threat and (2) an unprecedented macroenvironmental context for decision-making. The authors argue that these psychological and macroenvironmental forces may lead to suboptimal decision-making, based on (1) their basic cognitive architecture and (2) specific evolutionary triggers activated by the pandemic. The authors highlight how the interaction between these inputs and the decision context manifest in various social psychological phenomena that are known to impact judgments and decisions.
Simply put, the magnitude and the urgency of the global pandemic call for new and integrative ways of understanding organizational decision-making.
The model is new. Although the authors draw on prior research and theory, the model is uniquely interdisciplinary; further, the authors are able to make specific and unique predictions about the inputs, decision context and their social–psychological consequences for decision-making.
The purpose of these studies is to determine how maximizing sport fans seek optimal outcomes through team identification. Maximizers seek optimal outcomes but do not…
The purpose of these studies is to determine how maximizing sport fans seek optimal outcomes through team identification. Maximizers seek optimal outcomes but do not always obtain them. This may be particularly true of sport fans, who often identify with teams for reasons that run deeper than team success. Maximizing fans may be more concerned with being the best fans than following the best teams.
In Study 1, the authors measured maximizing tendency and identification with participants’ favorite National Football League (NFL) teams. The authors then used moderated regression to predict identification levels from the interaction of maximizing and the historical win–loss records of these teams. In Study 2, the authors manipulated team success by providing participants either an optimistic or pessimistic preview of their college basketball team’s upcoming season. The authors measured maximizing tendency as a moderator of this relationship and identification with the college basketball team as the dependent variable.
In Study 1, maximizers identified more strongly with their favorite NFL team when their favorite team was a historically unsuccessful team. In Study 2, maximizers identified more strongly with their college basketball team after reading a pessimistic preview of the team’s upcoming season than after reading an optimistic preview of that season.
Study 1 required participants to self-report their favorite NFL teams, so the results were only correlational. However, the authors were able to address this limitation with an experimental Study 2.
There are a number of potential implications for sport marketing strategy. For one, sport marketers may want to appeal to fans’ desire to be the best by supporting their teams when they need it most, particularly for teams that are not performing well.
This is the first examination of team or fan identification in the context of maximizing tendency.
MANY and sundry are the worries which fall to the lot of the librarian, and the matter of book‐repair is not the least among them. The very limited book‐fund at the disposal of most public library authorities makes it imperative on the part of the librarian to keep the books in his charge in circulation as long as possible, and to do this at a comparatively small cost, in spite of poor paper, poor binding, careless repairing, and unqualified assistants. This presents a problem which to some extent can be solved by the establishment of a small bindery or repairing department, under the control of an assistant who understands the technique of bookbinding.
The curriculum and instruction model, My Place, Your Place, Our Place (MYOPlace), is a vehicle for implementing internationalization of teaching and learning in elementary…
The curriculum and instruction model, My Place, Your Place, Our Place (MYOPlace), is a vehicle for implementing internationalization of teaching and learning in elementary and secondary schools by creating partnerships across borders to create learning projects to supplement existing local educational goals within a global con text. The model was developed at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, Tennessee USA and Bourgas Free University in Bourgas, Bulgaria. It has been field tested in elementary and secondary schools in schools in rural Appalachia (a mountain region( of East Tennessee and in urban schools in Bourgas on the Black Sea coast.
In dealing with the relations of the Public Analysts to the Local Authorities, the very wide differences in status and importance exhibited by the various types of local authorities possessing the power to appoint such officers must first be considered. At first sight this matter may appear to be one of minor significance, but it has in reality a most important bearing on the efficiency of the administration of the Acts, and it is one in regard to which future legislation might effect much‐needed reform.
Police duties place many officers at risk of traumatic stress and subsequent development of symptoms of post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A survey of 527 New Zealand…
Police duties place many officers at risk of traumatic stress and subsequent development of symptoms of post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A survey of 527 New Zealand Police officers was carried out to investigate the prevalence of PTSD and its relationship with traumatic experiences, both on and off the job. The results showed that the prevalence of PTSD in the New Zealand Police is comparable with that in other civilian populations who have experienced trauma. The number of reported traumatic events was positively correlated with the intensity of PTSD symptoms. Traumatic events experienced while on duty as a police officer were more strongly correlated with PTSD, and chronic experience of the same type of event predicted higher PTSD scores. The results are discussed in terms of implications for police organizations whose members are at risk of multiple traumatic experiences.
The 1997 election represented a watershed in female electoral politics in Britain. Not only did the number of elected women MPs double that of its previous intake, rising…
The 1997 election represented a watershed in female electoral politics in Britain. Not only did the number of elected women MPs double that of its previous intake, rising from just 60 members in 1992 to 120 in 1997, but, for the first time in electoral history, women were systematically targeted by political parties as a primary source of electoral support. This was particularly case among floating voters, or women who were still undecided as to how they would vote just six weeks prior to the day of the election. Using the 1997 British Election Survey, this paper focuses on gender differences in electoral volatility and their consequences for female voting patterns. The results suggest that both Labour and the Liberal Democrats were correct in their decision to pay special attention to the female electorate. As a group, women were significantly more likely to delay their voting decision than men, and this greater volatility among the female electorate worked to the political advantage of both these parties.
“While we were once perceived as simply providing services, selling products, and employing people, business now shares in much of the responsibility for our global quality of life. Successful companies will handle this heightened sense of responsibility quite naturally, if not always immediately. I see a future in which the institutions with the most influence by and large will be businesses.” These are the words of the late Robert Goizueta, chairman of the Coca‐Cola Company. They were quoted in an article by Theo Lippman Jr in The Baltimore Sun on July 5, 1998. This quote and the remaining article triggered my thinking about the need to bring this strategic concern to the fore in Strategy & Leadership.
One of the most serious problems facing the country today is maintaining dietary standards, especially in the vulnerable groups, in the face of rising food prices. If it were food prices alone, household budgetry could cope, but much as rising food prices take from the housewife's purse, rates, fuel, travel and the like seem to take more; for food, it is normally pence, but for the others, it is pounds! The Price Commission is often accused of being a watch‐dog which barks but rarely if ever bites and when it attempts to do this, like as not, Union power prevents any help to the housewife. There would be far less grumbling and complaining by consumers if they could see value for their money; they only see themselves constantly overcharged and, in fact, cheated all along the line. In past issues, BFJ has commented on the price vagaries in the greengrocery trade, especially the prices of fresh fruit and vegetables. Living in a part of the country given over to fruit farming and field vegetable crops, it is impossible to remain unaware of what goes on in this sector of the food trade. Unprecedented prosperity among the growers; and where fruit‐farming is combined with field crops, potatoes, cabbage, cauliflower and leafy brassicas, many of the more simple growers find the sums involved frightening. The wholesalers and middle‐men are something of unknown entities, but the prices in the shops are there for all to see. The findings of an investigation by the Commission into the trade, the profit margins between wholesale prices and greengrocers' selling prices, published in February last, were therefore not altogether surprising. The survey into prices and profits covered five basic vegetables and was ordered by the present Prices Secretary the previous November. Prices for September to November were monitored for the vegetables—cabbages, brussels sprouts, cauliflowers, carrots, turnips and swedes, the last priced together. Potatoes were already being monitored.