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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Kasturie Premlall, J. Herman Potgieter and S. Potgieter‐Vermaak

The effect of chlorides on corrosion of reinforcing steel is well documented in the literature. However, few studies have focused attention on the effect of sulphates on…

Abstract

Purpose

The effect of chlorides on corrosion of reinforcing steel is well documented in the literature. However, few studies have focused attention on the effect of sulphates on the corrosion of low carbon steel in alkaline media. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the results of the investigation into the corrosion behaviour of low carbon steel (typically used as reinforcing steel), exposed to alkaline media at a pH of 9 and 12 with varying concentrations of sulphate and chloride ions, as well as, in sulphate only solutions. An attempt was made to inhibit corrosion of steel exposed to the corrosive media using laser surface treatment of the steel specimens. Mass loss tests and electrochemical tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of sulphate only and the combined effect of sulphate and chloride ions in an alkaline media on steel.

Findings

It was found that sulphate ions could cause corrosion of steel in alkaline media. The severity of the attack increased with increasing sulphate ion concentrations, as well as with combinations of sulphate and chloride ions. The pH 12 conditions seem to show much more critical attack with evidence of pitting corrosion as compared to uniform corrosion for test conditions at a pH of 9. The attempt to inhibit the observed corrosion of steel exposed to the corrosive high alkaline media containing sulphate ions on their own and in combination of chloride ions by laser surface treatment proved to be successful.

Originality/value

The research undertaken here adds to the body of knowledge relating to the effect of sulphate ions on reinforcing steel corrosion in highly alkaline media. Most literature points out that sulphate ions on their own do not have a corrosive effect, but rather, a passivating effect!

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 58 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2022

Katherine C. Cotter

Globalization introduces new challenges related to increased levels of diversity and complexity that organizations cannot meet without capable global leaders. Such leaders…

Abstract

Globalization introduces new challenges related to increased levels of diversity and complexity that organizations cannot meet without capable global leaders. Such leaders are currently lacking, so a theory-based approach to global leader development is needed. A critical intermediary outcome that enables competent global leadership performance is global leader self-complexity, defined by the number of unique leader identities contained within a leader's self-concept (self-differentiation) and the extent to which the identities are integrated with the leader's sense of self (self-integration). This research aims to generate and test a theory of the development of global leader self-complexity through identity construction during international experiences. In Study 1, I gathered qualitative data through retrospectively interviewing 27 global leaders about identity-related changes following their international experiences. Using a grounded theory approach, I developed a theoretical model of global leader identity construction during international experiences, which I empirically tested using quantitative data in Study 2. Specifically, I tested the hypothesized relationships through structural equation modeling with cross-sectional survey data from a sample of 610 global leaders. Findings from both studies indicate global leader identity construction during international experiences primarily occurs through interacting with locals and local culture over a sustained period, motivated by appreciation of cultural differences and resulting in increased global leader self-complexity. These results advance understanding of the global leader self-complexity construct (i.e., what develops) and global leader development processes (i.e., how it develops). Additionally, the findings have practical implications for global leader development initiatives.

Article
Publication date: 23 April 2015

Guimei Wang and Jiahao Zhang

This paper discusses the use of three-dimensional mapping software SolidWorks as a platform to build a parametric model of coal mine filling equipment and a model library…

Abstract

This paper discusses the use of three-dimensional mapping software SolidWorks as a platform to build a parametric model of coal mine filling equipment and a model library of the equipment. The Solidworks software is used to create a near-realistic virtual environment to simulate and analyze the process of building a high-water filling station. In this way, designers can detect potential design flaws early and then optimize the design as much as possible before actual construction.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

C. C. Wolhuter

Over the past 65 years, Sub-Saharan Africa has been the terrain of the biggest education expansion drive in human history (Wolhuter & Van Niekerk, 2009). On top of this…

Abstract

Over the past 65 years, Sub-Saharan Africa has been the terrain of the biggest education expansion drive in human history (Wolhuter & Van Niekerk, 2009). On top of this expansion, Africa has been the site of imaginative experiments and innovations in education (Samoff & Carrol, 2013, p. 403). These all seem to offer attractive and fertile ground for Comparative and International Education scholarship to flourish. This chapter surveys the historical development and current presence of various facets of the scholarly field of Comparative and International Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The ultimate aim is to chart a future course for the field in the context of the meteoric rise (economically, demographically, and politically) of the continent. To commence with, an overview of this context is first given. Subsequently the history of formal education and then of higher education in the region are sketched. The evolution and current state of Comparative and International Education within this context is then surveyed, concluding with a reflection on its future prospects and course.

Details

Comparative and International Education: Survey of an Infinite Field
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-392-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Bev Orton

Abstract

Details

Women, Activism and Apartheid South Africa: Using Play Texts to Document the Herstory of South Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-526-7

Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2022

Li Ding

This chapter aims to (1) examine the effect of full-time employees’ STARA awareness on innovative work behavioural intentions in US casual dining restaurants; (2…

Abstract

This chapter aims to (1) examine the effect of full-time employees’ STARA awareness on innovative work behavioural intentions in US casual dining restaurants; (2) investigate the mediating roles of employees’ challenge–hindrance appraisals of STARA awareness on the relationship between their STARA awareness and innovative work behavioural intentions; (3) compare the group differences between management employees and non-management employees; and (4) provide recommendations for the casual dining restaurants.

This chapter employed an online survey to collect data from 609 full-time employees in US casual dining restaurants, including 306 management employees and 303 non-management employees. Partial least squares–structural equation modelling was applied for data analysis. The results reveal that the high levels of employees’ STARA awareness raise innovative work behavioural intentions through the mediations of challenge appraisal of STARA awareness.

The proposed conceptual framework and empirical findings in this chapter enrich the literature of cognitive appraisal theory, transactional model and stress, two-dimensional stressor framework, and person-environment fit theory. Employees’ challenge appraisal of STARA awareness makes the job insecurity stressor to drive innovative work behavioural intentions. As STARA adoption deepens in casual dining restaurants, managers need to be aware of full-time employees’ stress and psychological responses towards STARA adoption. Restaurants are suggested to provide employees with adequate resources and support to help employees’ professional competency growth. The capable employees will appraise the job insecurity stressor induced by STARA adoption as an opportunity and be motivated to perform innovatively in the workplace. The casual dining restaurants may enjoy a competitive advantage in the market through value-added innovative activities.

Details

Global Strategic Management in the Service Industry: A Perspective of the New Era
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-081-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

F.V. Adams, P.A. Olubambi, J.H. Potgieter and J. Van Der Merwe

The purpose of this paper is to supplement the scant previous investigations on the corrosion behaviour of 2205 and 2507 duplex stainless steels in selected organic acids…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to supplement the scant previous investigations on the corrosion behaviour of 2205 and 2507 duplex stainless steels in selected organic acids containing chloride additions.

Design/methodology/approach

Microstructural examination of the alloys was first carried out, after which the corrosion behaviour of the alloys in citric, oxalic, formic and acetic acids containing chloride additions at varying temperatures was studied using electrochemical techniques.

Findings

The alloy 2507 material had a larger grain size than did the alloy 2205 sample. The corrosion resistances of the alloys generally are highest in acetic acids and lowest in citric acid. The addition of chloride had a pronounced effect on their corrosion resistance. Alloy 2507 generally exhibited higher corrosion resistance in all of the acids than alloy 2205, with the exception of acetic acid at room temperature. The 50:50 ratio of ferrite to austenite composition, as revealed by phase compositional analysis, indicated no significant possibility for galvanic corrosion between the phases. This suggests that the corrosion behaviour of the alloys is controlled by their grain sizes and chemical compositions.

Originality/value

Although the corrosion behaviour of duplex stainless steels in some organic acid media has been reported, this investigation covers the major organic acids not previously reported. Since in real industrial systems a mixture of both organic and minerals acids/salts may typically exist, investigations of the combined effect of chloride ions with the organic acids reported in this paper typify real industrial operations. The paper thus provides a basis for material selection for the application of 2205 and 2507 in industrial systems where organic acids are mostly used.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Li Ding

This study aims to examine the effect of restaurant employees’ challenge-hindrance appraisals toward smart technology, artificial intelligence, robotics and algorithms…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of restaurant employees’ challenge-hindrance appraisals toward smart technology, artificial intelligence, robotics and algorithms (STARA) awareness on individual competitive productivity (ICP) and explore the mediating roles of employees’ work engagement and organizational commitment on the relationship between challenge-hindrance appraisals and ICP.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through an online survey. One hundred and ninety employees who worked at full-time and non-management positions in the USA quick-service restaurants participated. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used for the data analysis.

Findings

The study identified that restaurant employees’ challenge appraisals toward STARA awareness positively influenced ICP. This relationship is positively mediated by employees’ work engagement.

Practical implications

This study makes practical contributions to human resource practices in restaurants. Employees’ challenge appraisals toward STARA awareness transmit the job insecurity stressor to a higher level of ICP. Restaurant managers should provide employees with adequate resources and support for non-management employees’ professional competency growth. Quick-service restaurants can enjoy a competitive advantage in the market by enhancing employees’ CP.

Originality/value

This study enriches the literature on the CP model, cognitive appraisal theory and person-environment fit theory. The study investigated employees’ challenge and hindrance appraisals toward emerging STARA awareness and emphasized their distinct characteristics to drive ICP in the quick-service restaurant sector.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Durgesh Nandinee, Suvashisa Rana and Naga Seema

The objectives of the study were to explore the lived experiences of adolescents for understanding the process of their flourishing and develop a functional model to…

Abstract

Purpose

The objectives of the study were to explore the lived experiences of adolescents for understanding the process of their flourishing and develop a functional model to explain the dynamics of flourishing during adolescence.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by the qualitative approach, the authors used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to explore how various factors affect the process of flourishing during adolescence. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 10 adolescents to collect qualitative data.

Findings

A total of eight boosters (four internal and four external) and seven barriers (five internal and two external) emerged. The results highlighted the importance of a functional model that explained the dynamics of adolescents' flourishing. Though the authors conceded that the presence of boosters and absence of barriers were instrumental in enhancing flourishing during adolescence, based on the extant literature, the authors assumed the existence and operation of other intra-individual and inter-individual factors or correlates.

Research limitations/implications

First, the study participants are school-going adolescents living in a supported urban family environment where expectations to study and achieve are an important cultural component. Second, the study has focussed on the participants belonging to late adolescence—a transitional phase to emerging adulthood.

Practical implications

There are three implications of the study—theoretical (conceptualisation of a functional model), practical (construction of a new measure of flourishing) and clinical (designing intervention programmes to enhance positive living in adolescents).

Originality/value

The study has provided a deeper insight into adolescents' flourishing from insiders' perspectives using the framework of IPA and discovered and elaborated a functional model of adolescents' flourishing.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Helen Spandler and Mick McKeown

The purpose of this paper is to explore the case for a truth and reconciliation (T&R) process in the context of mental health services.

1863

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the case for a truth and reconciliation (T&R) process in the context of mental health services.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is a conceptual review of T&R approaches; a consideration of why they are important; and how they might be applied in the context of mental health services and psychiatry. First, the paper sets out a case for T&R in psychiatry, giving some recent examples of how this might work in practice. Then it outlines potential objections which complicate any simplistic adoption of T&R in this context.

Findings

In the absence of an officially sanctioned T&R process a grassroots reparative initiative in mental health services may be an innovative bottom-up approach to transitional justice. This would bring together service users, survivors and refusers of services, with staff who work/ed in them, to begin the work of healing the hurtful effects of experiences in the system.

Originality/value

This is the first paper in a peer-reviewed journal to explore the case for T&R in mental health services. The authors describe an innovative T&R process as an important transitional step towards accomplishing reparation and justice by acknowledging the breadth and depth of service user and survivor grievances. This may be a precondition for effective alliances between workers and service users/survivors. As a result, new forms of dialogic communication and horizontal democracy might emerge that could sustain future alliances and prefigure the social relations necessary for more humane mental health services.

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