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Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2012

Larry W. Isaac

Purpose – This paper extends research on social movement media by focusing on the use of a literary genre – realist fiction – namely, the labor problem novel in the…

Abstract

Purpose – This paper extends research on social movement media by focusing on the use of a literary genre – realist fiction – namely, the labor problem novel in the context of the labor movement and countermovement in late 19th-century America.

Methodology – I do a close reading of a significant early dialogical cluster of such novels to address three key questions: (1) Field position of authors – What was the position of these labor problem authors in relation to the movement field and literary field and how did that positioning matter? (2) Genre selection – What was it about the realist novel that attracted labor problem partisans to it? (3) Internal content – How did authors shape the internal structure and content of their stories?

Findings – As literary activists, authors pivoted between the movement field and literary field selecting the novel for the special powers that it possessed relative to other historically available media. Authors produced stories with a good/evil binary attached to characters that stood for emerging social categories in young industrial America. During the Gilded Age (and beyond) the novel played an important role as medium for the labor movement and its opposition – characterizing collective actors, dramatizing forms of action, providing materials for claims of injustice or threats, solutions to social problems, and new categories and collective identities – all with powerful emotional appeal and entertainment value.

Implications – This study suggests that social movement scholars might expand their purview of cultural media used by movements and also take genre and its selection by activists seriously.

Originality – This study demonstrates how literature – realist fiction – has been shaped by movement agents and played an important, but under-appreciated, role in the struggle over cultural supremacy in the context of movement–countermovement dynamics.

Details

Media, Movements, and Political Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-881-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Fred J. Hay

Anthropology was a late‐comer to the Caribbean and only after World War II did the study of Caribbean culture and societies become less exceptional. Early in this century…

Abstract

Anthropology was a late‐comer to the Caribbean and only after World War II did the study of Caribbean culture and societies become less exceptional. Early in this century when anthropology was first making itself over as an ethnographic science, anthropologists concentrated on tribal peoples. For most of the post‐Columbian era, the Caribbean region, with a few minor exceptions, was without indigenous tribal societies. Even after anthropology turned its attention to the study of peasantries, Caribbean peasantries were ignored in favor of more stable and tradition‐oriented peasant societies in other parts of Latin America. When anthropologists began to study Caribbean peoples in a more serious and systematic fashion, they found that they had to develop new concepts to explain the variation, flexibility, and heterogeneity that characterized regional culture. These concepts have had a significant impact on social and cultural theory and on the broader contemporary dialogue about cultural diversity and multiculturalism.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2003

Nancy Luke

The connection between women’s empowerment and health has been a growing concern among demographers and other social scientists, who theorize that empowering women – or…

Abstract

The connection between women’s empowerment and health has been a growing concern among demographers and other social scientists, who theorize that empowering women – or enhancing their ability to define and make strategic life choices – will improve their reproductive health (Kabeer, 1999). The importance of empowering women became a central theme at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994. The Cairo policy document codified the notion that women must be empowered in order for them and societies as a whole reach their reproductive health goals, including lowering fertility and population growth, stemming the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS, and ensuring healthy pregnancy and delivery (Hodgson & Watkins, 1997; Sen & Batliwala, 2000).

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Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-239-9

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2016

Roman Liesenfeld, Jean-François Richard and Jan Vogler

We propose a generic algorithm for numerically accurate likelihood evaluation of a broad class of spatial models characterized by a high-dimensional latent Gaussian…

Abstract

We propose a generic algorithm for numerically accurate likelihood evaluation of a broad class of spatial models characterized by a high-dimensional latent Gaussian process and non-Gaussian response variables. The class of models under consideration includes specifications for discrete choices, event counts and limited-dependent variables (truncation, censoring, and sample selection) among others. Our algorithm relies upon a novel implementation of efficient importance sampling (EIS) specifically designed to exploit typical sparsity of high-dimensional spatial precision (or covariance) matrices. It is numerically very accurate and computationally feasible even for very high-dimensional latent processes. Thus, maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of high-dimensional non-Gaussian spatial models, hitherto considered to be computationally prohibitive, becomes feasible. We illustrate our approach with ML estimation of a spatial probit for US presidential voting decisions and spatial count data models (Poisson and Negbin) for firm location choices.

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Spatial Econometrics: Qualitative and Limited Dependent Variables
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-986-2

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2011

Julie White and Sarah Drew

Plagued by doubt and methodological unease, two researchers from a large Australian study resolve their quandary by revisiting methodological literature related to…

Abstract

Plagued by doubt and methodological unease, two researchers from a large Australian study resolve their quandary by revisiting methodological literature related to narrative inquiry, visual approaches and contemporary interviewing to find that the application of poststructuralist theory to methodology provides a useful way of addressing their concerns. Before embarking on extensive writing about the project, they trouble issues of data authenticity, analytic integrity and the problem of voice. The main value of this deliberation is its applicability to the wider discourse about contemporary qualitative inquiry that other researchers facing analytical dilemmas may also find helpful.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Lukman Raimi

Diverse understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) abounds among scholars and practitioners in Nigeria. The purpose of this chapter is to reinvent CSR in…

Abstract

Diverse understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) abounds among scholars and practitioners in Nigeria. The purpose of this chapter is to reinvent CSR in Nigeria through a deeper understanding of the meaning and theories of this nebulous concept for better application in the industry. The qualitative research approach is adopted, relying on critical review of scholarly articles on CSR, website information of selected companies and institutional documents. It was found that there are diverse meanings of CSR in the reviewed literature, but the philanthropic initiatives and corporate donations for social issues are the common CSR practices in Nigeria. Besides, the eight dominant theories of CSR that find relevance for applications in the industry are shareholder/agency, stakeholder, legitimacy, instrumental, social contract, conflict, green and communication theories. The implication of the discourse is that better understanding and application of CSR theories would strengthen conceptual, theoretical and empirical research in the field of CSR. Besides, CSR theories are useful sources of information for practitioners for designing social responsibility policies and practices as well as for providing scholars with sound theoretical framework for academic research.

Details

Redefining Corporate Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-162-5

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Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2017

Lukman Raimi

The chapter discusses Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) with appropriate theoretical framings with the intent of creating a deeper understanding and application of CSR…

Abstract

The chapter discusses Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) with appropriate theoretical framings with the intent of creating a deeper understanding and application of CSR theories in Ibero-America’s hospitality industry. The research method is a qualitative research approach relying on critical review of scholarly articles on CSR theories. The sourced articles were critically discussed and analysed to fit the needs of the hospitality industry in Ibero-America. The shareholder/agency, stakeholder, legitimacy, instrumental, social contract, conflict, green and communication theories were identified as the eight dominant theories of CSR with diverse applications in the hospitality industry. The CSR theories discussed are not exhaustive, as there are emerging theories that explicate CSR in different contexts. The implication is that better understanding and application of CSR theories would strengthen conceptual, theoretical and empirical research in Ibero-America. The CSR theories are useful sources of information for practitioners for designing corporate CSR policies as well as providing scholars with sound theoretical framework for academic research. The chapter is a novel attempt at bridging theory and practice in the field of CSR, as well enriching the understanding of this concept among both practitioners and scholars in Ibero-America.

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Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-411-8

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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2007

Joel Hay

This chapter examines the role of pharmaceutical patents in the on-going support of pharmaceutical innovation. The social value of pharmaceutical innovation and the…

Abstract

This chapter examines the role of pharmaceutical patents in the on-going support of pharmaceutical innovation. The social value of pharmaceutical innovation and the importance of its sustained growth are explained. The government buy-outs of patents to reduce drug prices for all American consumers while preserving vital drug innovation are proposed.

Details

The Value of Innovation: Impact on Health, Life Quality, Safety, and Regulatory Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-551-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Juan L. Nicolau and Francisco J. Más

This study intends to decompose the tourist choice process into two stages (decision to take a holiday and tourist expenditure), and to propose and test various…

Abstract

Purpose

This study intends to decompose the tourist choice process into two stages (decision to take a holiday and tourist expenditure), and to propose and test various expectations on the dimensions which explain the above decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to simultaneously model the two decisions, we use a system of equations based on the Heckit model.

Findings

The dimensions affecting the decision to go on holiday are income, household size, education, size of the city of origin and opinion of going on holiday. The determinant factors influencing the level of expenditure are distance between origin and destination, type of accommodation, income, household size, age, marital status and length of stay. An important finding of this analysis is the differentiated effect of a given dimension on each decision.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of information on some explanatory dimensions. Joint modelling. The spending decision should be modelled jointly with the decision to go on holiday due to the dependency between them.

Practical implications

The promotion of destinations should be developed with special attention paid to some faraway markets of origin, due to the expected propensity for these tourists to spend longer periods at the destination. The specialisation of destinations in terms of accommodation type and length of stay. The design of holiday packages should be adapted to the needs of the tourists identified, as they represent the most profitable tourist profiles.

Originality/value

The particular findings, and the research and practical implications proposed show the relevance of the topic analysed. Also, these aspects are backed by a sample of 3,781 individuals, which assures the robustness of the results.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

George Neil and Jim O'Hara

This paper is a case history of the introduction of Just‐in‐Time (JIT) into a company in the electronic capital goods sector of the Scottish electronics industry. The case…

Abstract

This paper is a case history of the introduction of Just‐in‐Time (JIT) into a company in the electronic capital goods sector of the Scottish electronics industry. The case attempts to identify the company policies that led up to the introduction of JIT, the difficulties encountered and the benefits that the company has accrued in the short time since the introduction of JIT, with particular reference to the productivity/service trade‐offs. The company examined designs and manufactures complex, high technology, fairly high volume, short life‐cycle electronic products for international markets. Very high levels of quality and reliability are required by customers. Consideration is given to how the benefits that this company has accrued may be obtained by other companies both in the same environment and in other environments.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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