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Article

Joshua L. Glazer, Laura Groth and Blair Beuche

This paper considers the implications of reform efforts that rely on charter management organizations to assume operational control of underperforming neighborhood…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper considers the implications of reform efforts that rely on charter management organizations to assume operational control of underperforming neighborhood schools. The purpose of this paper is to examine the way in which changes to the education sector place enormous pressure on these organizations to both manage instruction and their social environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The research presents the results from a longitudinal case study of two organizations operating within the Tennessee Achievement School District (ASD). Interviews, observations and document analysis provided insight into the perspectives of school operators, state officials and community leaders. The study design allowed researchers to observe the influence of the environment on school operators over a four-year period.

Findings

Results show that the environment that included a muscular state, market pressures, NGOs and local communities placed an extreme and contradictory set of demands on organizations operating schools, pressing them to develop robust systems of instruction, leadership and teacher development while actively working to ensure social legitimacy in the community. Neither a national network nor a small local startup began with a strategy aligned to these environmental demands, and both needed to make substantial revisions.

Research limitations/implications

Research into contemporary educational reform should account for rapidly evolving environments that feature a complex mix of resources and incentives. Careful examination of the consequences of these environments for educational organizations will further our understanding of how markets, communities and governments are shaping the education sector.

Practical implications

The extraordinary challenges that confront organizations that operate in crowded and contested environments preclude fast or dramatic results. Policymakers and the public should assume an incremental process of organizational learning and improvement. Setting unrealistic expectations and focusing exclusively on impact risks delegitimizing organizations and policy initiatives before they have time to adapt.

Originality/value

This research reported here is among the few studies that have explored the experiences and implications of NGOs that have attempted to assume operational control of underperforming neighborhood schools. The popularity of this approach among a growing number of states highlights the importance of this topic.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 57 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the National Study on Women in Higher Education and Student Affairs.

Design/methodology/approach

It includes a collectively written diary, archives, focus groups, and interviews with a diverse group of women leaders from across the country. The women are diverse in terms of their self-identified race, class, age, sexual orientation, position on college campuses, and additional identities.

Findings

The author’s feminist approach to the review of these materials highlights notions of pay inequity, intersectionality of identities, and the power of women’s groups in educational settings.

Originality/value

The author’s research identifies areas critical to intentional change in educational policy and programs that have the potential to increase access and equity for women in higher education.

Details

The Obama Administration and Educational Reform
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-709-2

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Article

Vincent Reinbold, Van-Binh Dinh, Daniel Tenfen, Benoit Delinchant and Dirk Saelens

This paper aims to present two mathematical models to solve the Energy Management problem of a building microgrid (MG). In particular, it proposes a deterministic mixed…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present two mathematical models to solve the Energy Management problem of a building microgrid (MG). In particular, it proposes a deterministic mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and non-linear programming (NLP) formulations. This paper focuses on the modelling process and the optimization performances for both approaches regarding optimal operation of near-zero energy buildings connected to an electric MG with a 24-h time horizon.

Design/methodology/approach

A general architecture of a MG is detailed, involving energy storage systems, distributed generation and a thermal reduced model of the grid-connected building. A continuous non-linear model is detailed along with linearizations for the mixed-integer liner formulation. Multi-physic, non-linear and non-convex phenomena are detailed, such as ventilation and air quality models.

Findings

Results show that both approaches are relevant for solving the energy management problem of the building MG.

Originality/value

Introduction and modelling of the thermal loads within the MG. The resulting linear program handles the mutli-objective trade-off between discomfort and the cost of use taking into account air quality criterion. Linearization and modelling of the ventilation system behaviour, which is generally non-linear and non-convex equality constraints, involving air quality model, heat transfer and ventilation power. Comparison of both MILP and NLP methods on a general use case provides a solution that can be interpreted for implementation.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article

Amanda Cooper, Stephen MacGregor and Samantha Shewchuk

This scoping review utilizes findings from 80 articles to build a research model to study research-practice-policy networks in K-12 education systems. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

This scoping review utilizes findings from 80 articles to build a research model to study research-practice-policy networks in K-12 education systems. The purpose of this study was to generate a broad understanding of the variation in conceptualizations of research-practice-policy partnerships, rather than dominant conceptualizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Arskey and O'Malley's (2005) five stage scoping review process was utilized including: (1) a consultative process with partners to identify research questions, (2) identify relevant studies, (3) study selection based on double-blind peer review, (4) charting the data and (5) collating, summarizing and reporting the results in a research model identifying key dimensions and components of research-practice partnerships (RPPs).

Findings

Coburn et al. (2013) definition of RPPs arose as an anchoring definition within the emerging field. This article proposes a model for understanding the organization and work of RPPs arising from the review. At the core lies shared goals, coproduction and multistakeholder collaboration organized around three dimensions: (1) Systems and structures: funding, governance, strategic roles, policy environment, system alignment; (2) Collaborative processes: improvement planning and data use, communication, trusting relationships, brokering activities, capacity building; (3) Continuous Learning Cycles: social innovation, implementation, evaluation and adaptation.

Research limitations/implications

By using a common framework, data across RPPs and from different studies can be compared. Research foci might test links between elements such as capacity building and impacts, or test links between systems and structures and how those elements influence collaborative processes and the impact of the RPPs. Research could test the generalizability of the framework across contexts. Through the application and use of the research model, various elements might be refuted, confirmed or refined. More work is needed to use this framework to study RPPs, and to develop accompanying data collection methods and instruments for each dimension and element.

Practical implications

The practical applications of the framework are to be used by RPPs as a learning framework for strategic planning, iterative learning cycles and evaluation. Many of the elements of the framework could be used to check-in with partners on how things are going – such as exploring how communication is working and whether these structures move beyond merely updates and reporting toward joint problem-solving. The framework could also be used prior to setting up an RPP as an organizing approach to making decisions about how that RPP might best operate.

Originality/value

Despite increased attention on multistakeholder networks in education, the conceptual understanding is still limited. This article analyzed theoretical and empirical work to build a systematic model to study RPPs in education. This research model can be used to: identify RPP configurations, analyze the impact of RPPs, and to compare similarities and differences across configurations.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

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Article

Donald J. Peurach, David K. Cohen and James P. Spillane

The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships among governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and the organization and management of instruction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships among governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and the organization and management of instruction in US public education, with the aim of raising issues for cross-national research among countries in which the involvement of non-governmental organizations is increasing.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is structured in four parts: an historical analysis of the architecture and dynamics of US public education; an analysis of contemporary reform efforts seeking to improve quality and reduce inequities; an analysis of ways that legacy and reform dynamics manifest in two US public school districts; and a discussion of considerations for cross-national research.

Findings

In US public education, dependence on non-governmental organizations for instructional resources and services is anchored in deeply institutionalized social, political and economic values dating to the country’s founding and that continue to function as constraints on educational reform, such that new solutions always emerge in-and-from the same problematic conditions that they seek to redress. The consequence is that reform takes on an evolutionary (vs transformative) character.

Research limitations/implications

The US case provides a foundation for framing issues for cross-national research comparing among macro-level educational infrastructures, patterns of instructional organization and classroom instruction.

Originality/value

Such research would move beyond reductionist approaches to cross-national research toward new approaches that examine how histories, legacy architectures, contemporary reforms and patterns of instructional organization and management interact to shape students’ day-to-day lives in classrooms.

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Book part

Flora Farago, Kay Sanders and Larissa Gaias

This chapter draws on developmental intergroup theory, parental ethnic-racial socialization literature, anti-bias curricula, and prejudice intervention studies to address…

Abstract

This chapter draws on developmental intergroup theory, parental ethnic-racial socialization literature, anti-bias curricula, and prejudice intervention studies to address the appropriateness of discussing race and racism in early childhood settings. Existing literature about teacher discussions surrounding race and racism is reviewed, best practices are shared, and the need for more research in this area is highlighted. The construct of parental ethnic-racial socialization is mapped onto early childhood anti-bias classroom practices. The chapter also outlines racial ideologies of teachers, specifically anti-bias and colorblind attitudes, and discusses how these ideologies may manifest in classroom practices surrounding race and racism. Colorblind ideology is problematized and dissected to show that colorblind practices may harm children. Young children’s interpretations of race and racism, in light of children’s cognitive developmental level, are discussed. Additionally, findings from racial prejudice intervention studies are applied to teaching. Early literacy practices surrounding race and racism are outlined with practical suggestions for teachers and teacher educators. Moreover, implications of teacher practices surrounding race and racism for children’s development, professional development, and teacher education are discussed.

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Book part

Sharon Glazer, Małgorzata W. Kożusznik and Irina A. Shargo

Global virtual teams (GVTs), also known as transnational or distributed teams, are increasingly common as organizations strive to maintain a global presence, find top and…

Abstract

Global virtual teams (GVTs), also known as transnational or distributed teams, are increasingly common as organizations strive to maintain a global presence, find top and diverse talent, and cope with economic constraints. Despite increasing adoption of GVTs, there is a dearth of research addressing whether GVTs are an effective coping strategy for dealing with the world economic crisis and if there are unintended negative consequences on employee well-being as a result of their use. Thus, a focal question guiding the development of this chapter is whether or not GVTs are a sustainable solution for organizations? In this chapter we present a generic framework depicting the cycle by which macroeconomic demands impose changes on organization's structures, which trickle down to the level of the individual who has to cope with the demands the new structure has imposed. We discuss GVTs as an intervention (or cure) for organizations’ dealing with the current world economic crisis and how this organizational intervention inevitably becomes the context (or cause) for the kinds of stressors or demands employees face.

Details

The Role of the Economic Crisis on Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-005-5

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Article

Christopher J. Whitman, Oriel Prizeman, Pete Walker and Julie Amanda Gwilliam

The energy retrofit of the existing building stock, and specifically the thermal upgrading of the buildings’ envelopes, has been identified as a key action for both the…

Abstract

Purpose

The energy retrofit of the existing building stock, and specifically the thermal upgrading of the buildings’ envelopes, has been identified as a key action for both the decarbonisation of the built environment and the reduction in fuel poverty. When considering the energy retrofit of heritage buildings it is, however, important to recognise both the technical issues that this entails and the potential impact on their cultural value and the emotional responses to it. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the thermal upgrading of historic timber-framed buildings in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins by exploring the cultural significance of this form of building construction, before examining three case studies using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies.

Findings

The results show that whilst the application of energy retrofit actions to this emblematic typology may have limited success, the emotional connection of the buildings’ occupants often results in the work resulting in higher user satisfaction than would otherwise be expected.

Research limitations/implications

Although limited in number, the three case studies provide an insight into the complex issues surrounding the low energy retrofit of historic timber-framed buildings. Further research into this area is encouraged.

Practical implications

The paper contains the monitoring of specific retrofit details, the results of which should inform future projects.

Social implications

The review of the cultural significance of historic timber-frame buildings in the UK underlines the importance of the conservation and continuing survival of these buildings.

Originality/value

Previous heritage retrofit research in the UK has focussed on solid wall construction with little investigation into the issues surrounding the retrofit of historic timber-frame buildings. This paper explores this previously under-researched area. Additionally, this paper begins to explore the possible links between occupants’ emotional connection to historic buildings and their perceived levels of comfort.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article

J. Lau, M. Heydinger, J. Glazer and D. Uno

A case study was conducted to investigate the issues associated with the design and procurement of flip chip test die and corresponding organic substrates. Test wafers…

Abstract

A case study was conducted to investigate the issues associated with the design and procurement of flip chip test die and corresponding organic substrates. Test wafers were fabricated by an IC supplier and bumped with electroplated eutectic Sn/Pb by a third party. Issues associated with transferring integrated circuit data to printed circuit design software were identified. The bare and bumped wafers were characterised to identify possible criteria for lot qualification.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Book part

Jill Blackmore

This chapter will explore how different feminist theories and theorists have informed what counts as research, what is defined as a research issue, and methodological…

Abstract

This chapter will explore how different feminist theories and theorists have informed what counts as research, what is defined as a research issue, and methodological approaches to research in higher education. It will consider the theoretical and methodological tools feminist academics have mobilized in order to develop more powerful explanations of how gender and other forms of difference work in the relation to the positioning of the individual, higher education and the nation state within globalized economies. It pays particular regard to the feminist political project of social justice.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-682-8

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