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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2018

Nicholas R. Prince, J. Bruce Prince and Rüediger Kabst

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of national culture on the adoption of four different incentive pay bundles (incentive maximizer, contingent…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of national culture on the adoption of four different incentive pay bundles (incentive maximizer, contingent rewarder, profit rewarder, and incentive minimizer) using GLOBE national culture dimensions in 14 countries. It uses incentive pay bundles derived by Prince et al. (2016).

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted multilevel random-intercept logistic modeling using firm incentive practice usage from the CRANET database and country culture scores from the GLOBE study.

Findings

Evidence suggests that in-group collectivism is associated with increased use of the incentive maximizer approach, in which firms use a combination of high levels of individual, team, and profit sharing incentives, and decreased use of the incentive minimizer approach (where firms minimally employ incentives) and the individual and team bonus focused contingent rewarder configuration. Higher uncertainty avoidance is linked to increased use of the profit rewarder approach (where only profit sharing is emphasized) and decreased use of the contingent rewarder approach. Performance-orientation cultures appear to support using the incentive maximizer and avoiding the incentive minimizer bundles.

Originality/value

This study investigates incentive practice bundles that firms use verses separate analysis of practices and use the GLOBE culture metrics. It utilizes multilevel modeling, which has been lacking in past studies of culture and incentives.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Nicholas R. Prince, J. Bruce Prince, Bradley R. Skousen and Rüediger Kabst

Organizations worldwide are faced with the challenge of motivating and retaining employees. In addressing this challenge, organizations may use a variety of incentive pay…

1143

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations worldwide are faced with the challenge of motivating and retaining employees. In addressing this challenge, organizations may use a variety of incentive pay practices to align employee behavior with organizational objectives. The purpose of this paper is to empirically identify the incentive pay practice configurations or bundles adopted by private sector firms across 14 different countries from several geographic regions. The patterns of incentive pay configuration adoption for each country are evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

Cluster analysis, ANOVA, and multilevel random-intercept logistic modeling are utilized on firms from the 2009 CRANET HRM survey.

Findings

Phase I of this study empirically identifies four different configurations (contingent rewarder, incentive minimizer, incentive maximizer, and profit rewarder) derived from three incentive pay practices (individual bonus, team bonus, and profit sharing practices) that firms adopt. Phase II evaluates adoption rates by country and finds striking differences in incentive configurations that firms avoid or adopt. Some countries have clear adoption preferences (e.g. Denmark, Sweden, Japan, and France). In other countries firms employ a variety of incentive bundles (e.g. USA, UK, and Germany) and seem to be less constrained by country-based institutional factors.

Research limitations/implications

Incentive practices are typically studied independent of the configuration of practices that firms select. This research helps us understand the typical bundles in use.

Practical implications

Organizations worldwide are faced with the need to motivate employees. This research maps the incentive bundles preferred in each of 14 countries.

Social implications

Employees in different countries come to work with expectations about pay and these shape their perceptions of incentive fairness.

Originality/value

Research on incentives has tended to focus independently on specific practices and ignore the reality that organizations generally select multiple practices. This research identifies the combinations of incentive practices generally used and does so with firms from 14 countries from various world regions. These results also offer a map of the incentive bundles preferred in each country.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

J. Bruce Prince

The employee selection process has generally focused on the near‐term performance potential of internal candidates in filling vacant positions. This research addresses the…

3435

Abstract

Purpose

The employee selection process has generally focused on the near‐term performance potential of internal candidates in filling vacant positions. This research addresses the potential influence of adding a career development emphasis to the employee transfer decision process. In a career‐focused transfer process the applicants' individual career development needs and growth opportunities are a key basis for internal selection decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using web‐based survey methodology, a US financial services firm is used to evaluate the relationship between the use of career‐focused employee transfer criteria and key employee attitudes.

Findings

The study finds that the use of career‐focused processes are positively related to employees' developmental opportunity satisfaction and perceived support for career development. Regression analyses finds that these two attitudes mediate the positive relationship between the use of career‐focused transfer criteria and perceived organization support (POS). Other research efforts (e.g. Allen and Shore) have linked POS to a variety of positive outcomes, including lower employee turnover. Past research, however, has not considered how specific human resource practices can be the basis for the development of key attitudes.

Research limitations/implications

This research – while limited due to it cross‐sectional methodology – builds on that stream of research by focuses on the design of the employee transfer process and how it can be a key practice for achieving a developmental focus and associated benefits.

Originality/value

The results suggest that focusing on performance potential of applicants and career‐focused criteria are not necessarily antagonistic but can be used jointly to make internal selection decisions.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Parviz Ghoddousi, Omid Poorafshar, Nicholas Chileshe and M. Reza Hosseini

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to highlight the main factors and items affecting the productivity of construction projects, based on the perceptions…

1550

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to highlight the main factors and items affecting the productivity of construction projects, based on the perceptions of CEOs in construction companies in Iran. Second, the study compares the elicited CEOs’ perceptions against the findings of studies based on the views of such as project managers, middle managers and employees in other levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The study drew upon literature on construction work to develop a conceptual model. Further, a total of 60 CEOs from road construction companies were surveyed using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire to generate the data. The collated data were categorised and ranked according to the CEOs perceived level of importance using the relative importance index.

Findings

The findings highlight the main factors and items affecting labour productivity in construction projects in Iran as perceived by CEOs, which are mainly of human resources management nature and could be attributed to motivation and managerial policy aspects. The study also recognises that factors associated with the working environment particularly safety and health are perceived as insignificant by Iranian CEOs which could be a concern for the Iranian construction industry. The discussions shed some light on the discrepancies between the perceptions of CEOs and previous studies in regards to major determinants of productivity in the construction context.

Originality/value

This study is the first study aiming at discussing the perceptions of CEOs of construction companies active in construction projects in Iran. As such, the study highlights the standpoint of the main decision makers in construction companies in regards to labour productivity in the construction sector. Thus, the key contribution of the present study is providing insight into the perceptions of CEOs, who play the most vital role in strategic development of construction companies whereas previous studies have mostly focused on project or middle managers having a lower influence in determining the strategic plans of companies.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 64 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2022

Jorge Alcaraz and Elizabeth Salamanca

The purpose of this paper is to identify how the cultural attributes of ethnic networks affect foreign direct investment (FDI) location.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify how the cultural attributes of ethnic networks affect foreign direct investment (FDI) location.

Design/methodology/approach

The study tests on panel data the effect of ethnic networks in interaction with their member’s cultural attributes on FDI location.

Findings

Results show that ethnic networks whose members predominantly exhibit a human orientation do not affect FDI location. However, when performance orientation is the predominant cultural attribute of the members of an ethnic network, there is a positive and significant effect on FDI location.

Practical implications

Managers need to be aware that not all networks will be equally helpful in achieving particular goals. For instance, ethnic networks where the performance orientation is dominant among their members affect FDI location, unlike ethnic networks where human orientation is dominant. Therefore, decision-makers need to identify and align these two elements (networks and goals) to maximize outcomes.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by suggesting that FDI location is affected by ethnic networks where performance orientation is dominant among the members, which is not the case when human orientation is dominant among the members of the ethnic networks.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Jeffrey R. Dudas

It is widely recognized by scholars that superhero stories tend to glorify vigilante justice; after all, these stories often maintain that extralegal acts of violence are…

Abstract

It is widely recognized by scholars that superhero stories tend to glorify vigilante justice; after all, these stories often maintain that extralegal acts of violence are necessary for combatting existential threats to personal and public safety. This scholarly common sense fosters a widespread dismissal of superhero stories as uncomplicated apologia for an authoritarian politics of law and order that is animated by hatred of unpopular people and ideas. However, some prominent contemporary Batman stories, including those told in the graphic novels of Grant Morrison and in the blockbuster movies of Christopher Nolan, are ambivalent: in their portraits of Batman and Joker as dark twins and secret colleagues, these stories both legitimize and challenge the countersubversive politics of American law and order.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-221-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Tina T. Swan, Bruce Q. Swan and Zuopeng (Justin) Zhang

We address the question of how the Internet promotes international trade volume, and especially, whether the global human resources affect the bilateral international…

Abstract

Purpose

We address the question of how the Internet promotes international trade volume, and especially, whether the global human resources affect the bilateral international trade during the technology development across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamic panel causality analysis is carried out to demonstrate empirically that the causality of the Internet diffusion on the international trade volumes. Evidence shows a significant positive effect of the Internet on international trade volume from time-series and cross-sectional regressions. Furthermore, the magnitude of elasticity is discussed.

Findings

There is strong evidence that the Internet stimulates international trade for all countries. Growth of trade volumes changes over time with heteroscedastic responses. The positive impacts of the growth of GDP are diluted by the growth of global human resources.

Originality/value

The data on the number of web hosts is not necessarily correlated to where the site is actually located. We contribute to the new Internet measurement which helps to explain the information transferring that stimulates the international trade and examine the global human resources.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 April 2015

Bernard Harris, Roderick Floud and Sok Chul Hong

In The Changing Body (Cambridge University Press and NBER, 2011), we presented a series of estimates showing the number of calories available for human consumption in…

Abstract

In The Changing Body (Cambridge University Press and NBER, 2011), we presented a series of estimates showing the number of calories available for human consumption in England and Wales at various points in time between 1700 and 1909/1913. We now seek to correct an error in our original figures and to compare the corrected figures with those published by a range of other authors. We also include new estimates showing the calorific value of meat and grains imported from Ireland. Disagreements with other authors reflect differences over a number of issues, including the amount of land under cultivation, the extraction and wastage rates for cereals and pulses and the number of animals supplying meat and dairy products. We consider recent attempts to achieve a compromise between these estimates and challenge claims that there was a dramatic reduction in either food availability or the average height of birth cohorts in the late-eighteenth century.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-782-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Georgios I. Zekos

Globalisation is generally defined as the “denationalisation of clusters of political, economic, and social activities” that destabilize the ability of the sovereign State…

1103

Abstract

Globalisation is generally defined as the “denationalisation of clusters of political, economic, and social activities” that destabilize the ability of the sovereign State to control activities on its territory, due to the rising need to find solutions for universal problems, like the pollution of the environment, on an international level. Globalisation is a complex, forceful legal and social process that take place within an integrated whole with out regard to geographical boundaries. Globalisation thus differs from international activities, which arise between and among States, and it differs from multinational activities that occur in more than one nation‐State. This does not mean that countries are not involved in the sociolegal dynamics that those transboundary process trigger. In a sense, the movements triggered by global processes promote greater economic interdependence among countries. Globalisation can be traced back to the depression preceding World War II and globalisation at that time included spreading of the capitalist economic system as a means of getting access to extended markets. The first step was to create sufficient export surplus to maintain full employment in the capitalist world and secondly establishing a globalized economy where the planet would be united in peace and wealth. The idea of interdependence among quite separate and distinct countries is a very important part of talks on globalisation and a significant side of today’s global political economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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