Health care practitioners in prison face the challenge of providing high standards of health care within the unique peculiarities and restraints of the prison environment…
Health care practitioners in prison face the challenge of providing high standards of health care within the unique peculiarities and restraints of the prison environment. The strict adherence to principles of medical ethics by the prison health care staff and the knowledge and acceptance of these principles by the whole prison community not only results in ethical conduct but also yields practical professional advantages such as guidance in situations of conflict, promotion of confidence and avoidance of misunderstandings. The internationally consented conventions, declarations and recommendations relevant on medical ethics in prison are presented and their basic principles ‐ the primary task of the prison doctor, access to a doctor, equivalence of care, patient’s consent and confidentiality, preventive health care, humanitarian assistance, professional independence, professional competence ‐ are discussed. In addition, the personal obligation of the prison doctor for ethical reflection and decision making in individual ethical issues not covered by the quoted documents and in ethically controversial issues is emphasized. A training course and published guidelines for ethical conduct in prison health care are recommended.
Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers’ view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide ‐ problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.
‘Soldering and Cleaning in Electronics’ international conference, including an exposition, took place in Brno on 12–13 October 1993. The conference was organised by…
‘Soldering and Cleaning in Electronics’ international conference, including an exposition, took place in Brno on 12–13 October 1993. The conference was organised by SMT‐Info, together with the ISHM‐Czech and Slovak Chapter. The purpose of this common action was to bring together the professionals in surface mount technology and thick film technology. In the framework of the conference, in which 130 home and foreign delegates participated, the annual meeting of the ISHM‐Czech and Slovak Chapter took place.
‘The Choice between Chip and Wire and High Density Surface Mount Packages (MCM‐X, COB, etc.)’ was the title of the above event. One of a regular series held by ISHM‐France, this technical seminar was attended by over 100 members and non‐members of ISHM who were eager to hear of the latest developments in the field of multichip modules. The eight papers presented are summarised below:
Research has shown that a key issue for prisoners using healthcare services during their sentence is that of patient confidentiality. Maintaining prisoners’ medical…
Research has shown that a key issue for prisoners using healthcare services during their sentence is that of patient confidentiality. Maintaining prisoners’ medical confidentiality has been shown to be difficult in the prison setting as many treatments, especially those considered to be out of the ordinary, are more likely to result in a breach of medical confidence. This can include treating infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis or tuberculosis, which can often include long term and regular contact with healthcare staff, and which, in some cases, may require referrals to specialists outside the prison setting. In addition, institutional factors unique to prisons may impact on healthcare staffs’ ability to maintain prisoners’ confidentiality, such as security or health and safety concerns. Drawing on research carried out by the author on healthcare and people with problematic drug use in prisons in a range of European countries, this paper considers the factors that impact on maintaining prisoners’ medical confidentiality and some of the attempts to address this issue.
This paper aims to investigate the usability of the nickel copper zinc ferrite with the composition Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4Fe1.98O3.99 for the realization of high-temperature…
This paper aims to investigate the usability of the nickel copper zinc ferrite with the composition Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4Fe1.98O3.99 for the realization of high-temperature multilayer coils as discrete components and integrated, buried function units in low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC).
LTCC tapes were cast and test components were produced as multilayer coils and as embedded coils in a dielectric tape. Different metallization pastes are compared. The properties of the components were measured at room temperature and higher temperature up to 250°C. The results are compared with simulation data.
The silver palladium paste revealed the highest inductance values within the study. The measured characteristics over a frequency range from 1 MHz to 100 MHz agree qualitatively with the measurements obtained from toroidal test samples. The inductance increases with increasing temperature and this influence is lower than 10%. The characteristic of embedded coils is comparable with this of multilayer components. The effective permeability of the ferrite material reaches values around 130.
The research results based on a limited number of experiments; therefore, the results should be verified considering higher sample sizes.
The results encourage the further investigation of the material Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4Fe1.98O3.99 for the use as high-temperature ferrite for the design of multilayer coils with an operation frequency in the range of 5-10 MHz and operation temperatures up to 250°C.
It is demonstrated for the first time, that the material Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4Fe1.98O3.99 is suitable for the realization of high-temperature multilayer coils and embedded coils in LTCC circuit carriers with high performance.
Coors Ceramics GmbH, subsidiary of Coors Ceramics Company's Electronic Products Group, has appointed Mr Viktor Fronz as its German National Accounts Manager. Mr Fronz assumed responsibility for all of Coors Ceramics' electronic products accounts in Germany on 1 July 1994.